Before during after vocabulary strategies

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Why Vocabulary?
Vocabulary knowledge is related
to reading comprehension,
intelligence, content knowledge,
and reasoning.
-Stahl, 1999
How confident do you feel about your
vocabulary instruction?
On a scale of 1 – 9, how confident are you about your
vocabulary instruction?
Place a post-it on the scale on the wall– 1 is the
lowest & 9 is the highest.
1
5
9
Adapted from Dale, Rasband, Ross, Gardner, & Cunningham, 2004
How do you teach vocabulary?
• Discuss within your group.
• Record your responses.
• Share out.
Essential Questions:
Why is vocabulary instruction so
important?
What are exemplary strategies for
vocabulary instruction?
What strategies do we want students
to use during reading?
4 Components of an Effective
Vocabulary Program
1. Wide or extensive reading to expand word
knowledge,
2. Instruction in specific words to enhance
comprehension of texts containing those
words,
3. Instruction in independent word-learning
strategies, and
4. Word consciousness and word play
activities to motivate and enhance learning.
Michael Graves, 2000
Components of Vocabulary
Instruction
The National Reading Panel (2000)
concluded that there is no single
research-based method for
teaching vocabulary. From its
analysis, the panel recommended
using a variety of direct and
indirect methods of vocabulary
instruction.
Direct or Intentional Vocabulary
Instruction
• Explicit instruction of vocabulary is
highly effective. To develop
vocabulary intentionally, students
should be explicitly taught both
specific words and word-learning
strategies.
• -National Reading Panel (2000)
Research–based Strategies for
Vocabulary Development
• Wide and Extensive Reading
• Morphemic Analysis
• Contextual Analysis
• Dictionary Use
• Cognate Analysis (ELL)
Word knowledge is much more
than word identification or even
definitional knowledge–
“It takes more than definitional knowledge to know a
word, and we have to know words in order to identify
them in multiple reading and listening contexts and use
them in our speaking and writing.” (Allen, 1999)
Finding definitions and writing
those words in sentences have had
little apparent impact on their word
knowledge and language use.
Janet Allen, 1999
Dictionary Use!
• When students have been provided
dictionary definitions and asked to create
sentences or answer brief questions about
the words, research has shown:
• 63 percent of the students’ sentences were judged to be “odd”
(Miller & Gildea, 1985)
• 60 percent of students’ responses were unacceptable (McKeown,
1991; 1993)
When the horse you are riding dies,
DISMOUNT!
Some dead horses for
vocabulary instruction…
1. Do not give students isolated words or weekly
spelling words to look up in the dictionary and
write sentences. This is a deadly useless activity
that is boring, not good instruction, and only
teaches student how boring it is to learn new
words.
2. Move away from fill in the blank, or matching
word definitions in isolation.
Reading Aloud
"The single most important
activity for building the knowledge
required for eventual success in
reading is reading aloud to
children."
Becoming a Nation of Readers (1985)
Wide Reading
• Students learn more
words than a year
than we can teach
• Best way for
students to learn
many words in
conjunction with
learning word parts
Vocabulary Instruction
Direct teaching of vocabulary can help improve
comprehension when we follow these guidelines
(Cooper, 1993):
• A few critical words are taught.
• The words are taught in a meaningful context.
(including nonlinguistic representations)
• Students relate the new words to their background
knowledge.
• Students are exposed to the words multiple times.
Planning- Which Words to Choose?
Fiction
• Words that are
important to the theme
• Words necessary to
understand the story
Nonfiction
• Words necessary to
understand the text
(usually in bold or
italics)
Words that are common across
many contexts (tier 2 words)
Planning- Instruction Routine
• Students need repetition with the words
that will be explicitly taught
• Have a routine for explaining the words
• Deep understanding of the words
• Have a routine for practice with the words
• Engage in activities with the words
• Encourage students to discuss the words
• Read the words in context
What are exemplary strategies
for vocabulary instruction?
Explicit Vocabulary Instruction
Vocabulary instruction is
embedded within the
instructional routine for
reading and follows a before,
during and after reading
format.
Before Reading
Instruction
Activities
• Archer’s Instructional
• Frayer Model
Routine for
Vocabulary
• Marzano’s Building
Academic VocabularySteps 1-3
• Beck’s Questioning
Strategies
• Semantic Mapping
• Word and Concept
Sorts
During Reading
Instruction
Activities
• Model strategy use
• Vocabulary Tree Map
• Monitor/support
• Dictionary
student strategy use
• Providing affirmative
and corrective
feedback
After Reading
Instruction
Activities
• Marzano’s Building
• Frayer Model
Academic VocabularySteps 4-6
• Beck’s Questioning
Strategies
• Semantic Mapping
• Word and Concept
Sorts
Background Knowledge
The relationship between
vocabulary knowledge and
background knowledge is
explicit in research.
(Nagy & Herman, 1984; Marzano, 2004; Hart & Risley, 1995)
“Our inner-city student might have
little background knowledge related
to camping trips but a lot related to
getting around the city on the
subway. Consequently, he would have
difficulty learning and integrating new
information about camping trips but
would find it easy to learn new
information about transportation via
subway systems”.
(Marzano, 2004)
Marzano’s Six Step Process
• Step 1- Provide a description, explanation or example of
•
•
•
•
•
the new term
Step 2- Ask students to restate the description,
explanation or example in their own words
Step 3- Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or
graphic representation of the term
Step 4- Engage students periodically in activities to help
them add to their knowledge of the terms in their
notebooks
Step 5- Ask students to discuss the words with one
another.
Step 6- Involve students periodically in games that allow
them to plan with terms
Knowledge Rating Scale
Word
tyranny
serendipity
grapnel
purport
sensitive
dubious
Know it
well, can
explain
it, use it
Know some- Have seen
thing about
or heard
it, can relate the word
it to a
situation
Do not
know the
word
Word Sorts- organizing words into categories
hurricanes
Why is this a good before
reading strategy?
Word Sorts
hurricanes
• Provide students with a set of vocabulary word cards
(related to a specific concept or topic).
• Work in groups to sort the words into categories.
• Encourage students to find more than one category
for the vocabulary words.
• Students then discuss with teacher & peers their
rationale for categorizing words.
Let’s sort!
Concept Circles Before Reading:
Westward Movement
Describe the meaning and relationships between and among the
words in the sections of the concept circles.
terrain
disease
Traveling west had many hardships. One of the many hardships were diseases
that the people had without medical help. Wagons would need to hold many
delicacies.
For instance, food you’d need to eat and live on were carried in them. The
trails could have bad terrain, or could be all flat. Hunting was important and
learning how to hunt for buffalo, elk, deer, and birds was learned while on the
trail and served as good food for all.
Concept Circles Assessment:
Circulatory System
Describe the meaning and relationships between and among the words in the sections of
the concept circles. (Which word does NOT belong? Write why below.)
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Migrate
• Sentence from text- Philpe’s family migrates from Virginia
to Florida every year to pick oranges.
Schwartz & Raphael, 1985
What is it?
What is it like?
To move regularly from one
region to another
moving around
Part of speech
relocating
verb
traveling
migrate
people working
for seasonal jobs
birds
Nomads
What are some examples?
Word Map
What is it?
What is it like?
Part of speech
Scaffold
What are some examples?
Frayer Model
Definition
An extreme state of agitation.
Characteristics
Stress, anxiety, tension, hostility,
Tears, physical symptoms
SWIVET
First, last week of school.
Unexpected guests for dinner
Four projects due
Examples
Sitting on the porch reading
Bubble bath
Lounging by the pool
Non-Examples
Frayer Model
Definition
Characteristics
What is a
Noun?
Examples
Non-Examples
Fryer Model
Visual Representation
Term
sphere
Definition
A round 3-D shape
Personal Association
My ball is
the shape
of a sphere.
PRIME
SCIENCE &
PRIME
SOCIAL
STUDIES
Which words
would you
pre-teach?
Which words
would you
explain while
you read?
Frayer Model- Choose a word from the
PRIME text
Definition
Examples
Characteristics
Non-Examples
Contextual Redefinition
Work with a group to make predictions for definitions of
each of the following words. The words included here are
found in Notes on the Space We Take. Remember that
some words which look familiar will probably have new
meanings in this context.
WORD
hiss
exoskeleton
Vulnerability
Predicted
Definition
Definition
Based on
Context
Context
Clues Used
Marzano’s Six Step Process
• Step 1- Provide a description, explanation or example of
•
•
•
•
•
the new term
Step 2- Ask students to restate the description,
explanation or example in their own words
Step 3- Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or
graphic representation of the term
Step 4- Engage students periodically in activities to help
them add to their knowledge of the terms in their
notebooks
Step 5- Ask students to discuss the words with one
another.
Step 6- Involve students periodically in games that allow
them to plan with terms
During Reading- Scaffolding
• Brief explanation of words not important to
concept or theme, but helpful to understanding
the text
• Moccasins- show a picture or provide a good
explanation
• Give synonyms, antonyms and examples
• Point out word parts that the students are
familiar
During Reading- Scaffolding
• Dictionary
• How do you use the dictionary?
• Only helpful when have context to
help figure out the meaning
• May need to revisit after reading to
check for understanding
Fryer Model- During Reading
Visual Representation
Term
sphere
Definition
A round 3-D shape
Personal Association
My ball is
the shape
of a sphere.
Contextual Redefinition
Work with a group to make predictions for definitions of
each of the following words. The words included here are
found in Notes on the Space We Take. Remember that
some words which look familiar will probably have new
meanings in this context.
WORD
hiss
exoskeleton
Vulnerability
Predicted
Definition
Definition
Based on
Context
Context
Clues Used
Semantic Feature Analysis
FDR
JFK
Nixon
Reagan
Clinton
Democrat
+
+
-
-
+
War time
President
+
-
+
-
-
Congress
(same party)
Re-elected
Served in Congress
Won majority of
popular vote
Semantic Feature Analysis
Convex
Equilateral Equiangular
4 sided
Opposite
sides
parallel
square
x
x
x
x
x
rectangle
x
x
x
x
triangle
x
quadrilateral
x
Regular
polygon
x
x
rhombus
x
x
trapezoid
x
x
x
x
x
PRIME
SCIENCE &
PRIME
SOCIAL
STUDIES
Which words
would you
explain while
you read?
What type of
explanation
would you
provide?
Marzano’s Six Step Process
• Step 1- Provide a description, explanation or example of
•
•
•
•
•
the new term
Step 2- Ask students to restate the description,
explanation or example in their own words
Step 3- Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or
graphic representation of the term
Step 4- Engage students periodically in activities to help
them add to their knowledge of the terms in their
notebooks
Step 5- Ask students to discuss the words with one
another.
Step 6- Involve students periodically in games that allow
them to plan with terms
Interactive Notebooks
• Students keep a log or journal to record what
they are learning
•Teacher provides a concept or word.
•Students write quickly & spontaneously (free
write/quick write) everything they know about the
word.
•Analyze word parts.
•Draw a graphic representation.
•Include graphic organizer and foldables used to
learn the word.
•Peer and/or teacher response.
Concept Circles
Which word does
not belong?
Rectangle
Cone
Hexagon
Trapezoid
Why? ___________________________________________________
Concept Circles
Which word does
not belong?
Cuba
England
Hawaii
Japan
Why? ___________________________________________________
racism
stereotyping
Church
bombing
violence
Concept: Civil Rights Movement
Migrant
Hobo
Dust Bowl
Hoovervilles
Concept: The Depression
Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969)
Definition
Characteristics
Best or greatest value
Prime
Examples
Non-Examples
Frayer Model (Frayer, Frederick, & Klausmeier, 1969)
Content for this example taken from Baron & Heideima, (2002) Teaching Reading in
the Content Areas (Supplement), McRel.
Definition
Characteristics
• 2 is the only even prime number
A whole number with
exactly two divisors
(factors)
• 0 and 1 are not prime
Prime
Examples
2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17,
...
•Every whole number
can be written as a
product of primes
Non-Examples
1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10. . .
Frayer or Fryer Model Modifications
• Many versions that can be
used to expand on word
knowledge
Frayer or Fryer Model- another version
Term
sphere
noun
A round 3-D shape
Verb- sphered,
sphering
To enclose into a
sphere
Adjective- spherical
In the shape of a
sphere
Beck’s Questioning Strategies
• Great sponge activities
• A way to informally assess
student’s knowledge of the
words
• Encourages students to truly
understand the meaning of
the words
Questions, Reasons and
Examples
• Why might you walk around a dark
room cautiously?
• What is something that you could do
to impress your teacher? Why?
• Which of these things might be
extraordinary?
Making Choices
• If any of the things
I say might be
examples of
people clutching
something say
“Clutching”. If not,
don’t say anything.
Making Choices
• I’ll say some
things, if they
sound leisurely,
say “Leisurely.”
If you’d need to
be in a hurry say
“Hurry.”
Choices
• Ask the children to choose between
two words
If you and your friends were watching
a funny TV show together and began
to laugh a lot, would you sound
pounce or raucous?
One Context for All of the Words
• What would an immense plate of
spaghetti look like?
• Why might you feel miserable after
eating all that spaghetti?
• What would it look like to eat spaghetti
in a leisurely way?
Concept SortSort before, during and after vocabulary strategies
Before
During
After
+
Concept SortSort before, during and after vocabulary strategies
Before
Knowledge
rating scale
Student friendly
explanations
During
Dictionary
After
+
Beck’s
questioning
strategies
Student
conversations
about words
Semantic
Feature Analysis
Synonym,
antonyms,
examples
Games
Word maps
Frayer/Fryer
Model
Contextual
redefinition
Concept sorts
Concept circles

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