The Effectiveness of Garlic on Bacterial Growth Purpose • To test whether garlic and or garlic extract will have an effect on the growth of E. coli. • Many herbs and spices, garlic especially, have been said to be tremendously useful for antibacterial purposes. Background Information • Garlic was used medicinally dating back to the Neolithic Age • It was used for protection against the Great Plague of London in 1665 and also during World War I • Recent studies confirm that garlic is effective in inhibiting the growth of different bacteria, fungi and viruses • The antibacterial properties are due to the allicin,C6H10OS2, that garlic contains. It stimulates the immune system by increasing the number of white blood cells called lymphocytes. • If crushed or finely chopped more allicin is produced • If cooked a lot or under high temperatures its effectiveness will dwindle. Hypothesis • All forms of garlic used will inhibit bacterial growth • The solution containing fresh, mashed garlic and sterile water will be the most effective in doing so • The solution comprised of cooked, mashed garlic and sterile water will be the least effective Procedure 1. 1.0g garlic powder and 10.0mL sterile water were combined and filtered into a small, sterile jar. This was specimen A. 2. One clove of fresh garlic was mashed to a pulp and combined with 10.0mL sterile water. It was then filtered into a small, sterile jar, creating specimen B. 3. Two sterile pipettes were used to extract 10.0 mL of organic garlic extract and 10.0mL of sterile water in a small, sterile jar. This was specimen C. 4. To create specimen D, 50.0mL of tap water was boiled in a beaker on a hot plate. Once boiling, one clove of garlic was put in the water for two minutes. The garlic was then removed and crushed with with 10.0mL sterile water and filtered into a small, sterile jar. 5. Specimen E consisted of the control, 10.0mL sterile water. 6. The five jars containing the solutions were then autoclaved to prevent mold growth. 7. They were poured into five Petri dishes and labeled A-E. 8. Five blank discs were submerged into each Petri dish. 9. The bacteria, E. coli, was hydrated and then evenly streaked onto five different agar dishes using sterile technique. 10. Using sterile tweezers, one blank disc from each solution was added onto each of the five dishes. 11. The agar dishes were labeled 1-5 and taped shut. They were put in the incubator at 37oC. Results and Data Zones of Inhibition (mm) A: Garlic Powder B: Fresh Garlic C: Garlic Extract D: Cooked Garlic E: Sterile Water 0 0 0 11 0 12 12 13 13 12.2 Rows 2-6 represent the measurements of the 5 trials. Row 7 is the average of the five Results and Data The Effectiveness of Garlic in Fighting Bacteria Average Zones of Inhibition (mm) 14 12 A- Garlic Powder B- Fresh Garlic C- garlic extract D- cooked garlic E- sterile water 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D Different Solutions E This graph shows the zones of inhibition produced from adding different forms of garlic to E.coli Notice that only solution D, cooked garlic, produced zones of inhibition. This suggests that cooked garlic is the only form of garlic that inhibits bacterial growth Average Zones of Inhibition (mm) Expected Zones of Inhibition 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C D E Different Solutions This graph shows the expected values of the average zones of inhibition for the garlic solutions Notice that all garlic solutions produced zones of inhibition This suggests that the real zones of inhibition produced contradicted the expected values of the zones of inhibition. Discussion • Factors that could have effected results: – Garlic solutions were not concentrated enough – Autoclaving the solutions could have made the allicin ineffective, similar to cooking. – The garlic not being used immediately could have weakened the allicin – Not enough samples of fresh garlic • Further Studies: – Use other forms of bacteria – Using an alternate heating method such as baking – Test in different temperatures Discussion • First set of trials produced excessive mold growth, results were inconclusive • To prevent this the solutions were autoclaved the second time Conclusion • Cooked garlic was the only solution to produce zones of inhibition • Hypothesis was rejected • Results are important to the world because it means that cooked garlic can be used for certain antibacterial purposes.