INFANCY (0-2 YEARS and reflexes)

Report
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.

Babies develop very rapidly during the
first three years of life. They are born with
a number of physical reflexes.

A reflex is an uncontrolled response to a
physical change (E.G MOVING YOUR
HAND AWAY FROM A HOT PLATE).
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.

THE BABY TURNS IT’S HEAD IN THE
DIRECTION OF THE TOUCH, ENABLING IT
TO FIND THE NIPPLE OF IT’S MOTHER’S
BREAST TO OBTAIN FOOD.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XMUrKQjDL-g
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of
young infants from the ages of 0 to 2 years old.

When startled, a baby throws out is arms
and legs, then pulls them back with
fingers curved.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.

A BABY WILL GRASP AN OBJECT PLACED
IN THE HAND.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jzKufhWZ2Yw&NR=1
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gyVLD0
hl0XY


WHEN A BABY IS HELD WITH IT’S FEET TOUCHING
THE GROUND ITS LEGS WILL MAKE FORWARD
MOVEMENTS, AS IF WALKING.
Most parents are surprised by this reflex. If you
hold your baby under his arms, support his
head, and allow his feet to touch a flat
surface, he will appear to take steps and walk.
This reflex usually disappears by 2-3 months,
until it reappears as he learns to walk at around
10-15 months.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.
Match the correct reflex to the correct
description.
 WALKING REFLEX
 GRASP REFLEX
 MORO REFLEX
 ROOTING REFLEX

Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.
Fine Motor Skill Development
This is the child's ability to use small muscles, specifically their hands and
fingers, to pick up small objects, hold a spoon, turn pages in a book, or use a
crayon to draw.
Gross Motor Skill Development
This is the child's ability to use large muscles. For example, a six-month-old baby
learns how to sit up with some support, a 12-month-old baby learns to pull up to a
stand holding onto furniture, and a five-year-old learns to skip
What is a developmental milestone?
A developmental milestone is a skill that a
child acquires within a specific time frame.
For instance, one developmental milestone
is learning to walk. Most children learn this
skill or developmental milestone between
the ages of 9 and 15 months.
During the first two years babies learn to
control their muscles and movements.
The control of large muscles, such as in
the arms and legs, is called GROSS
MOTOR SKILLS.
 The control of smaller muscles and
movements, such as those in the fingers,
is called FINE MOTOR SKILLS.

Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.
0-6 months Gross Motor
Skills:
● lift head
● kick their legs
● roll over
● sit with support
● begin to crawl
● likes to bounce with
support
6-12 months Gross Motor
Skills:
● sit unassisted
● pull to standing position
● walk holding onto furniture
● move from lying to sitting
position
● crawls well
Q1) What are reflexes?.
Q2) Describe the reflexes of a new born
baby.
Q3) Describe and give 3 examples of a
fine motor skill.
Q4) Describe and give three examples of a
gross motor skill.
Q5) What is parallel play?.
Q6) What is cooperative play?.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.
What is a developmental milestone?
What is a developmental milestone?
A developmental milestone is a skill that a child acquires within a specific time frame.
For instance, one developmental milestone is learning to walk. Most children learn this
skill or developmental milestone between the ages of 9 and 15 months.
AGE
GROSS/ FINE MOTOR SKILL??
NEW BORN
PRIMITIVE REFLEXES
1 MONTH
LIFTS UP CHIN, SOME CONTROL OF
HEAD.
6 MONTHS
CAN MOVE OBJECTS FROM ONE
HAND TO ANOTHER. PICKS UP
DROPPED TOYS IF THEY ARE IN
SIGHT.
15 MONTHS
CAN WALK WITH OUT HELP
2 YEARS OLD
KICKS A BALL.
2/3 YEARS OLS
CAN BUILD A TOWER OF BRICKS.
2/3 YEARS OLD
STANDS ON TOES, CAN RIDE A
TRICYCLE.
AGE
GROSS MOTOR SKILL
NEW BORN
PRIMITIVE REFLEXES
1 MONTH
LIFTS UP CHIN, SOME
CONTROL OF HEAD.
6 MONTHS
CAN MOVE OBJECTS
FROM ONE HAND TO
ANOTHER. PICKS UP
DROPPED TOYS IF THEY
ARE IN SIGHT.
15 MONTHS
CAN WALK WITH OUT
HELP
2 YEARS OLD
KICKS A BALL.
2/3 YEARS OLS
2/3 YEARS OLD
FINE MOTOR SKILL
CAN BUILD A TOWER
OF BRICKS.
STANDS ON TOES, CAN
RIDE A TRICYCLE.
The most important intellectual
development an infant makes is the ability
to use and understand language. Babies
understand simple words such as ‘bye-bye’
at 6-9 months.
 At two years old, most children will start
using two word statements ‘ZOE SLEEP’.
 Intellectual development is helped by play.
Children can look at books to help stimulate
them and increase their ability to recognise
objects.

SOLITARY PLAY

Normally occurs during infancy, infants
will play by themselves.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.
PARALLEL PLAY

Is when chidlren play next to each other,
but not together. For example, one child
may play with building blocks and
another with a doll.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.
CO-OPERATIVE PLAY

IS WHEN CHIDLREN PLAY TOGETHER, FOR
EXAMPLE A GAME OF TAG.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.
PRETEND PLAY

A TYPE OF PLAY THAT ALLOWS CHILDREN
TO LEARN ABOUT THEIR WORLD. FOR
EXAMPLE, PLAYING HOUSE.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.
Occurs satisfactorily if a secure
attachment/ relationship has been made in
the first years of life.
 As the child gets a little older, he or she will
begin to be interested in other children. By
the age of two her or she will play alone
with other children, this is called PARALLEL
PLAY.
 A child is about 4 before he or she can play
properly with another child. This is called
CO-OPERATIVE PLAY.

Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.


During the first 18
months of life, infants
develop an
emotional bond with
their carers. This
boding process ties
the infant
emotionally to
familiar carers.

USE THE INTERNET
AND RESEARCH THE
WORK OF JEAN
PIAGET AND
BANDURA.
PRESENT YOUR
FINDINGS IN A
WRITTEN REPORT.
You must make sure
you include the
following: name of
theorist, outline of
work, any key terms.


Socially, young children and particularly infants tend to focus on the adults
who are close to them and become bonded to a small group of people
early in life - mainly the people who care for them. This forms the basis for
attachment which is the strong emotional tie felt between the infant and
significant other. The quality of attachments depends upon the adults. When
attachments are formed, young infants learn that they can depend on
mothers, fathers, caregivers, or older siblings to make them feel better.
Attachment begins early in life and infants show several early attachment
behaviors. Behaviors such as cooing, kicking, gurgling, smiling and laughing
show that infants care for and respond early to people who are important to
them. Crying and clinging are also attachment behaviors of infants which
are used to signal others. Infants as early as one month old show signs of
attachment in the form of anxiety if they are cared for by an unfamiliar
person. They may show distress signs such as irregular sleeping or eating
patterns.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.

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
Is another attachment behaviour of infants. This is when a child shows distress
by often crying when unhappy because a familiar caregiver (parent or other
caregiver) is leaving. The first signs of separation anxiety appear at about six
months of age and are more clearly seen by nine months of age. Separation
anxiety is very strong by 15 months of age and begins to gradually weaken
around this time also.
Parents and other caregivers need to understand and prepare for this
attachment behavior (separation anxiety) in children by making transitions
easier for the child. Children between the age of 9 and 18 months will usually
have a lot of difficulty beginning a child care program.
Parents can make the transition easier by bringing the child's favorite toy or
blanket along. It is also important to understand separation anxiety as a
normal developmental process in which children are fearful because their
familiar caregivers are leaving them.
Children beginning a child care program are in an unfamiliar surrounding
with unfamiliar people.
Children will gradually show less distress as the setting, the people, and
routines become more familiar to them.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the ages of 0 to 2
years old.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_JmA2ClUvUY
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.



begin to self soothe
after crying
be able to express
various emotions eg.
anger, sadness,
happiness
be developing a
sense of love and
trust with caregiver(s)





be very curious about their
environment
start to have mood swings
and temper tantrums
object when they cannot
not have their own way
loving but tend to be self
centered in their view of
the world
show separation anxiety
when caregiver leaves
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.

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
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Tips to Nurture Babies’ Social and Emotional Development
Hold babies while feeding. Even if the baby holds the bottle, being held and
cuddled during feeding helps develop a strong nurturing relationship with the
child care provider. Never prop a bottle in a baby’s mouth; it may cause choking.
Respond every time a baby cries. Crying is the only way young babies can tell
you what they need. Help babies learn to trust you by picking them up, talking to
them and taking care of their basic needs. Be consistent so your baby knows
what to expect. You cannot spoil a baby by responding to her cries.
Stay close to babies when someone new is around. As babies get older, they are
wary of strangers. This is sign of a strong, positive attachment. Encourage strangers
to approach babies slowly. Introduce the babies to the new person. Give them a
chance to become familiar with the new person in the safety of your presence
before that person picks them up.
Help families handle separation anxiety. Around 8 to 12 months, many babies cry
when parents drop them off at child care. Help parents understand that this
means their baby has a strong bond with them. Be sure parents say goodbye
before they leave their child. Provide gentle reassurance when babies cry. Talk
about babies’ families, and reassure them that the parent will be back later.
Stay with the same group of infants as long as possible. Babies need a consistent,
reliable child care provider to build a strong attachment. Avoid moving babies
from room to room or teacher to teacher.
Lesson objective – to learn about the PIES of young infants from the
ages of 0 to 2 years old.
GCSE Y10 – Newborns - Reflexes

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