Mixed Research

Mixed Research
Santiago Cortez
CSC 426
Quantitative Designs
• Quantitative Research: the investigation of
phenomena using statistical, mathematical, or
computational techniques. In theory specific
and narrow questions are posed and data is
collected. This data is analyzed using statistics
and hopefully provides an unbiased result that
can be generalized to a large population. The
researcher seeks themes and patterns that are
potentially exclusive to the phenomena.
Qualitative Designs
• Qualitative Research is a non-statistical
method of analysis and inquiry of social
phenomena. It is inductive (bottom-up) and
uses interviews, observations, videotapes, and
case studies. It examines and interprets social
and human behavior many prior to the
formulation of a hypotheses. It is also known
as field research and identifies why individuals
and groups think and act they way they do.
Mixed Research Designs
• Mixed Research combines both quantitative
and qualitative methods in one overall study.
In some types of research there is socially and
statistically relevant information that must be
processed in order to understand a problem.
Many computer science fields such as IS,
Project Management, and Disaster Recovery
rely just as much on human interaction as
statistical or machine performance.
Two major types of mixed research
• Mixed Method research uses a quantitative
approach for one phase and a qualitative
approach for another phase. An example
would be conducting an interview with
participants to gather an opinion after an
experiment has been conducted. One study to
would determine what happens while the
other determines why it happened.
Two major types of mixed research
• Mixed Model research mixes qualitative and
quantitative approaches in the same stage or
across multiple stages of the research. An
example of is a survey containing closedended (quantitative) and open-ended
(qualitative) questions.
Advantages of Mixed Research
• Weaknesses in one method can be
compensated for by strength in another
• Can account for a broad range of variables,
questions, and hypotheses
• Cover holes in the theory
• Approach a topic from more than one point of
view (strong inference)
Advantages of Mixed Research
• Can triangulate or cross-examine results. Use
different methods to produce the same result.
• Can corroborate previously established
• Can expand a set of results
• Can discover data that may have been missed
by using only one design
• Can identify additional research opportunities
Disadvantages of Mixed Research
• It is time consuming and expensive
• Must have experience in both quantitative
and qualitative research
• Spend more time on analysis
• May be difficult to combine or interpret data
• Must experiment to achieve the correct mix
How to design your mixed methods
research study
• Before you start:
o What is your philosophy and theory?
o Make sure you have sufficient time, resources,
and expertise
o Identify why you want or need to use mixed
How to design your mixed methods
research study
• When stating the research problem you must
be specific about which questions will be
assigned to specific methods and state why
that method will satisfy the problem
• Coordinate you data collection activities for
each part of your study. Be specific about
when the data will be collected, analyzed, the
weighting of each section, and how it will be
How to design your mixed methods
research study
• Collect your data
• Analyze your data
• Determine if the combined approach has
addressed the research question(s).
• If yes continue to final report.
• If no, consider what the mixed methods
produced that was unexpected and try to
determine why.
How to design your mixed methods
research study
• When composing your final report make sure
to identify which results were produced by
each method and tie them together.
Types of designs
• Convergent design: merges quantitative and
qualitative data and comparing the results
• Sequential design: Obtain the results from one
data set from build another
• Embedded design: insert one design inside of
another such as an experiment using
individuals and interviews or a questionnaire
to uncover the experiences of the participants
Types of designs
• Multiphase design: different project using
different designs conducted over time and
linked together. Frequently one phase is a
building block for the next.
Challenges in Computer Science
• Frequently computer science research is built
on algorithms, computations, machine design,
and performance parameters. There are many
other facets that deal with human computer
interaction, change management, education,
software elicitation, and project management
that cannot be adequately captured using
traditional quantitative computer science
My Research
• Organizational Liquidity
• Serious Games
Mixed Research References
• Chapter 2, Quantitative, Qualitative, and
Mixed Research,
• Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative,
and Mixed Methods Approaches. Creswell, J.,
Mixed Research References
• U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Office of Behavioral and Social
Sciences Research, Best Practices for Mixed
Methods Research in the Health Sciences, The
Nature and Design of Mixed Methods
Research, Creswell, et al.,
Mixed Research References
• Weaknesses of Mixed Method Design
(Onwuegbuzie & Johnson, 2004)

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