Important events in 1788-1824 Presidents • • • • • • • • • • 1789: George Washington 1792: George Washington 1796: John Adams 1800: Thomas Jefferson 1804: Thomas Jefferson 1808: James Madison 1812: James Madison 1816: James Monroe 1820: James Monroe 1824: John Q. Adams Desire for a Stronger Central Government • Flaws in Articles of Confederation • In 1787, delegates from 13 states went to Philadelphia to amend Articles of Confederation – Feared too much power in small stats – Smaller states favored model provided by Articles (One vote per state) – Larger states wanted population to represent representation Government Under New Constitution • Virginia Plan (Larger States): James Madison proposed a bicameral legislature with number of reps determined by proportional representation • Madison also proposed 3 branches of gov’t • New Jersey Plan (Smaller States): favoring a strong central gov’t; unicameral legislature where every state received one vote • Great Compromise: Plan included upper house Senate (2 reps/state) and lower house, House of Reps based on population • Electoral College: chief executive elected by Electoral College; senators elected by state legislatures not by voters. Issue of Slavery • Decided that the new national gov’t could not regulate slavery for 20 yrs • 3/5 Compromise: stated that 3/5 of stat’s pop. Would be counted when determining House of Reps. Presidency of George Washington • 1st term was uncertain • Crucial to establish respect for office of the president of the United States • Believed it was his job to administer laws and not to make them • Cabinet Departments (War: Henry Knox, State: Jefferson, and Treasury: Hamilton) • Limited role of VP (head of Senate) • Executive privilege – President is not obliged to share info to public • Judiciary Act of 1789 – Established federal courts and added 6th member judge Washington’s Cabinet • Alexander Hamilton: Treasury Secretary – “Loose Constructionist”: Constitution has room for interpretation – Tariffs and Taxes: Wants to repay bond holders – National Debt • Assumption: to assume states’ debts after Revolutionary War; South upset- had the least amount of debt • Compromise of 1790: the national capital would be built on the banks of the Potomac River (which would please the South) if the federal government assumed war debts (which would please the North). – Established National Bank • “Necessary and proper” • Thomas Jefferson: Secretary of State • “Strict Constructionist”: Believed in exact interpretation of the Constitution • Argued with Hamilton – Did not want National Bank for the weathly; plan would only benefit upper class – Wanted states to hold power Emergence of Political Parties Hamiltonians: Federalists Vs. Jeffersonian: Democratic Republicans The Bill Of Rights 1791 • Proposed by James Madison; proposed 12 amendments to the Constitution • Contains the basic protection for Americans – i.e. freedom of speech, ensured freedom of worship, right to bear arms, forbid quartering of troops in private homes, warrants before searches, rights in a civil case, “due process of law”, trial by jury The French Revolution • 1789: French Rev. during Washington’s reign • Washington issued Declaration of Neutrality allowing American merchants to prosper by trading with both sides • Pennsylvania farmers who supported the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 were inspired by French Rev. – Opposed excised tax by Hamilton – Washington sent army to stop rebellion Foreign Policy and Jay’s Treaty • War between France and Britain continued – US period of “neutrality” • Jay’s Treaty: 1794 treaty between US and Britain designed to ease tensions between both nations – Britain agreed to abandon forts occupied in interior of continent – Did not agree over rights of American ships – Case of the War of 1812 Washington’s Farewell Address • Did not run for 3rd term • Spoke against party politics • Warned that America should not enter into alliances that would cause them to get involved in foreign wars Presidency of John Adams 1796-1800) • • • • Washington’s VP Had 4 largely unsuccessful years in office Federalists vs. Republicans Foreign Policy – XYZ Affair – France was his biggest problem • Undeclared war with France (Trying to stay neural; Washington’s farewell address; opted for peace for 2 years.) The Alien and Sedition Acts • Alien Act: gave the president the right to deport any immigrant who was felt to be “dangerous to the peace and safety of the U.S” • Sedition Act: stated that the administration cold prohibit any attacks on the president or Congress that were deemed to be “malicious” Elections of 1800 • Jefferson (Republican candidate) and Burr (VP) each received 73% of electoral votes • Threw election to House of Reps, where each state received one vote • Thomas Jefferson wins – Alien and Sedition Acts were not renewed – Taxes such as Whiskey tax eliminated – Opposed further expansion of national debt – Supported National Bank Reform of Courts • Congress passed Judiciary Act creating a large number of federal courts “ • Midnight appointments” • Marbury v. Madison – Marshall increased power of the Supreme Court in this 1803 decision • Judicial Review: – Marshall stated that the US Supreme Court ultimately had the power to decide on the constitutionality of any law passed by US Congress or by the legislature of any state Westward Expansion • Jefferson encouraged westward expansion (Area between Appalachian Mts. And Mississippi River) • Over 1 million lived there in 1800 • Louisiana Purchase Napoleon offered to sell to US for $15 million – Double the size of the US European Wars Sill Over to America • Napoleonic wars of European (1802-1815) had a powerful impact on US – US had neutral stance on war • Embargo Act of 1807: American ships could not enter the seas until England and France stopped their harassment of American shipping; unpopular act by Jefferson • Non-Intercourse Act : Introduced by Madison in 1808, opened trade with all except England and France Madison’s Presidency • Henry Clay’s American System • Relationships between Britain, France & US – Chesapeake – Napoleon's War – Jay’s Treaty • All leading up to the War of 1812 War of 1812 • Reasons for War US frustrated by the continued British policies of impressments and seizure of ships Madison formally asked Congress to declare war in June of 1812 Connections with Britain and Native Americans The American System • Proposed by Henry Clay and other nationalists • American System: to make US less economically dependent on Europe by encouraging production of goods in the US that had been previously imported • Led to 2nd National Bank; credit readily available • Tariff of 1816: raised tariff rates to nearly 22% The Growth of the Factory 1820s • Economic growth was a key component of Henry Clay ‘s American System • Putting-out system: merchants would buy raw materials, recruit dozens-hundreds of farm families to do work, and then sell finished product • Late 1780s: textile industry started to use powerdriven machines and interchangeable parts • Lowell System: young women brought into workforce “Era of Good Feelings” • James Monroe (1817-1825) – Panic of 1819 • high unemployment as well as increased foreclosures and bankruptcies. Some critics derided Monroe for not responding more forcefully to the depression – Tallmadge Amendment • Question whether Missouri should be free or slave state – Missouri Compromise • Henry Clay and Westward Expansion Missouri Compromise 1820 • By 1819 there were 11 slave and 11 free states • In 1820, Speaker of the House Henry Clay engineered the Missouri Compromise – Maine entered Union as a free slave, Missouri entered as a slave state – In the Louisiana Territory, any state north of 36 degrees had to come in as free states The Monroe Doctrine 1823 • Stated that countries in the Western Hemisphere were no off-limits to European control – Noncolonization: not to interfere wih affairs – Nonintervention: not to colonize Latin American countries • US cannot support not strong enough army/navy but had Britain’s great navy, but will not abide by document Election of 1824 • • • • William Crawford Henry Clay John Q. Adams (wins) Andrew Jackson: Won most of popular votes; only 38% of electoral votes – Election turned towards House of Reps. – Speaker of the House Clay threw support to Adams – Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State – Jackson tried to corrupt Adams’ presidency • “corrupt bargain” between Adams and Clay Significance of JQA’s presidency • supported internal improvements including the extension of the Cumberland Road • In 1828, the so-called "tariff of abominations" was passed • Its goal was to protect domestic manufacturing • strongly opposed in the South • led Vice President John C. Calhoun to argue again for the right of nullification - to have South Carolina nullify it by ruling it unconstitutional.