Solute

Report
CHAPTER 8
Solutions and Other Mixtures
MATTER
MIXTURES
SUBSTANCES
Homogeneous
Elements
Heterogeneous
Compounds
Mixtures
• Heterogeneous
– Suspensions
• Maybe filtered out
• Immiscible
– Do not mix
– Colloid
• Can not be filtered
– Emulsion
• A colloid in which liquids
that do not normally mix are
spread throughout each
other
• Homogeneous
– Solutions
• Solute – dissolves
• Solvent –liquid the solute
dissolves into
• Miscible – 2 or more liquids
form a single layer when
mixed
– Separated by distillation
Paper Chromatography
Solute
(Ink)
used to separate mixtures into
their components
Solvent – liquid that dissolves
the solute
Solute – pigment particles
Different solute particles
have different strengths of
attraction to the liquid and the
cellulose fibers.
(Water)
Mixtures
• Other states of matter
can form solutions
• Solids can dissolve in
other solids
– Gases can dissolve in
liquids (air, soft drinks)
– Alloy – homogeneous
mixture composed of 2
or more metals
CD lab 14 & Penny experiment: alloys
How Substances Dissolve
Water
The Universal Solvent
2/3 of Earth’s Surface
¾ of our Body Weight
Water – Polar Compound
• Electrons are not
evenly distributed
– H+
– O–
– Polar compound
• Water molecules
attract both + and –
ions of an ionic
compound
Drops on penny extension lab
CAN NOT BE
SEPARATED
with physical
methods
CAN BE
SEPARATED
Mixtures CAN be separated by physical means
• Sorting
Filtering
• Heating
Cooling
•Chromatography
Solvent – liquid that dissolves
the solute
Solute – pigment particles
Different solute particles
have different strengths of
attraction to the liquid and the
cellulose fibers.
1 type of matter
CAN NOT BE
SEPARATED
2 or more types
of matter
CAN BE
SEPARATED
SUBSTANCES
CANNOT be separated into different kinds of matter
• Element
– Made of only one
type of atom
Elements are made of
atoms, and not the
other way around
• Compounds
– Made of
elements of 2 or
more elements
– Every compound
is different than
the elements it
contains
Substances
• Element
• Compound
– Substance with 1 type
of matter
– Substance with 2 or
more types of matter
– Examples:
– Examples:
• Periodic table
• Compound
– One capital letter
– Two capital letter
– Zinc, hydrogen,
copper,
– Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
– Table salt (NaCl)
– Carbon dioxide (CO2)
1 type of matter
CAN NOT BE
SEPARATED
2 or more types
of matter
CAN BE
SEPARATED
MIXTURES
• Heterogeneous
• Homogeneous
– Contains more than
– Contains more than 1
1 type of matter
type of matter
– Not uniform
– Same throughout
Examples:
Chicken noodle soup
Before it is Open?
After it is Open?
Examples:
Soda pop
Vanilla ice cream
Ink from a marker
1 type of matter
CAN NOT BE
SEPARATED
2 or more types
of matter
CAN BE
SEPARATED
• HOMOGENEOUS
– Smallest particles
• Examples:
– Penny
– Solution X
– Water
– Food coloring & water
– Alloys
• 14 Kt gold
Solutions
• HETEROGENEOUS
– Medium Size
– Shows Tyndall Effect
– Does not form layers
• Examples:
– Corn starch
– Gelatin
Colloids
• HETEROGENEOUS
– Large Size
– NO Tyndall Effect
– Forms layers
• Examples:
– Muddy water
– Clay & water
– Oil & water
Suspension

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