Analytical Thinking and Writing In All Subject Areas Expository Text Structure: Cause-Effect Non-fiction Text Structures (how authors organize nonfiction texts) Students need to be taught text structures so that they can successfully read and write non-fiction. • Compare-Contrast • Cause-Effect • Goal-Action-Outcome (procedure/process, sequential/chronological order, order of importance) • Problem-Solution • Proposition-Support (persuasive, position) • Concept-Definition (descriptive) What does a cause-effect text look like? A cause-effect text uses an organizational pattern in which a writer first presents a reason or motive or basis and then presents its result or consequence. Brainstorm topics in your content area that have causes and effects. Students’ awareness of text structures improves reading comprehension. Use Post-It Response Notes to show your students how smart readers think as they read. Why should our students be doing analytical writing in all subject areas? • Due to the rigor of state testing, our students are required to think at higher levels. • Writing is thinking! Students cannot write without thinking. • If students are not writing clearly, they are not thinking clearly. • Writing is thinking made visible. • Students need to write (and think!) in all subject areas to explain what they know and how they know it. Tools for Cause-Effect Thinking and Writing Multi-flow Map Partial Multi-Flow Map Effect Cause Effect Cause Event OR Event Effect Cause Effect Causes only Effects only Order of Operations for Essay Writing Begin with your topic. Brainstorm on a Thinking Map, jot list, etc. Analyze and summarize information on the Thinking Map, etc. to determine your thesis statement. Use information on Thinking Map, etc. to determine supporting ideas and write topic sentence for each idea. Find supporting evidence to explain supporting ideas in detail in the body paragraphs. Write your hook (tells why we care, states thesis). Incorporate transitions to combine and explain your ideas. Write your conclusion (rewrite the thesis, revisit main points from body paragraphs and hook). Using the Writing Order of Operations in Social Studies 1. Begin with a topic: What really caused the loss of life on the Titanic and how have such catastrophes been avoided since? 2. Brainstorm on a Multiflow Map. No binoculars iceberg Speeding (human error) Not enough lifeboats (human error) The Titanic sinks on maiden voyage , and 1500 people die. New lifeboat regulations North Atlantic ice patrol 24-7 wireless operators 3. Analyze the Multi-flow Map to determine a thesis statement . No binoculars Flares not right color Speeding Not enough lifeboats The Titanic sinks on maiden voyage , and 1500 people die. New lifeboat regulations North Atlantic ice patrol 24-7 wireless operators Summary of causes: Profound and repeated human error caused the sinking Summary of effects: improved and standardized emergency equipment and procedures 4. Create a thesis statement based on the analysis of the Multi-flow Map. THESIS: Although the loss of life on the Titanic was due to profound and repeated human error, it resulted in improved and standardized emergency equipment and procedures on the high seas. Remember: The thesis statement is the most important element of the essay! Now it’s your turn…… 1. Choose a topic from your previously created list of topics which have causes and effects. 2. Create a multi-flow map showing the causes and effects of the event. 3. Analyze the Multi-flow Map and summarize the causes and effects. 4. Create a thesis statement for a cause-effect essay. Tips for Writing a Cause-Effect Essay Introduction • • Hook (How will this cause-effect help someone better understand this topic? Why is this topic important in the big picture?) Thesis statement (summarizes the most significant causes and effects related to the topic) The Body • Writers need solid supporting ideas to develop an argument. • Each paragraph should be focused on a single cause or effect that supports the thesis. • HOWEVER, write as many paragraphs as needed to support the thesis. Cause-Effect Transitions • • • • • • • • • • • Use transition words to help the reader follow the flow of ideas. as a result of since this led to if….then because therefore consequently so/so that benefit nevertheless reason • • • • • • • • • • in order to occurrences why factors cause thus due to outcome effect result The Essay’s Conclusion • Rewrite the thesis statement using different wording and/or; • Revisit the main points from the body paragraphs and/or; • End on some memorable thought, such as a relevant quotation, interesting twist of logic, or some call to action that is related to the hook. Teachers of all subjects are responsible for: • Thesis statements • Organization • Transitional language • Content Remember! Content-area teachers are not responsible for GUM (grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling). Back in the Classroom • Post the cause-effect transition words in your classroom. • Model how smart readers think by using the Post-it Response notes and allow your students to practice the strategy while they read. • Use the annotated cause-effect essays to help your students become analytical readers and writers. • Have your students write a cause-effect essay using the Writing Order of Operations on the essay planning page. • Model each part of the essay planning page and provide feedback during the drafting stage.