cause-effect - florencehighschool

Report
Analytical Thinking and
Writing In All Subject
Areas
Expository Text Structure:
Cause-Effect
Non-fiction Text Structures
(how authors organize nonfiction texts)
Students need to be taught text structures so that
they can successfully read and write non-fiction.
• Compare-Contrast
• Cause-Effect
• Goal-Action-Outcome (procedure/process,
sequential/chronological order, order of
importance)
• Problem-Solution
• Proposition-Support (persuasive, position)
• Concept-Definition (descriptive)
What does a cause-effect
text look like?
A cause-effect text uses an
organizational pattern in
which a writer first presents a
reason or motive or basis and
then presents its result or
consequence.
Brainstorm topics in
your content area that
have causes and effects.
Students’ awareness of text structures
improves reading comprehension.
Use Post-It Response Notes to show your
students how smart readers think as
they read.
Why should our students be doing
analytical writing in all subject
areas?
• Due to the rigor of state testing, our students are
required to think at higher levels.
• Writing is thinking! Students cannot write without
thinking.
• If students are not writing clearly, they are not thinking
clearly.
• Writing is thinking made visible.
• Students need to write (and think!) in all subject areas to
explain what they know and how they know it.
Tools for Cause-Effect Thinking
and Writing
Multi-flow Map
Partial Multi-Flow Map
Effect
Cause
Effect
Cause
Event
OR
Event
Effect
Cause
Effect
Causes only
Effects only
Order of Operations for Essay Writing
Begin with your topic.
Brainstorm on a Thinking
Map, jot list, etc.
Analyze and summarize information on the Thinking
Map, etc. to determine your thesis statement.
Use information on Thinking Map,
etc. to determine supporting ideas
and write topic sentence for each
idea.
Find supporting evidence to
explain supporting ideas in
detail in the body paragraphs.
Write your hook (tells why
we care, states thesis).
Incorporate transitions to
combine and explain your
ideas.
Write your conclusion (rewrite
the thesis, revisit main points
from body paragraphs and
hook).
Using the Writing Order
of Operations in Social
Studies
1.
Begin with a topic:
What really caused the loss
of life on the Titanic and how
have such catastrophes been
avoided since?
2. Brainstorm on a Multiflow Map.
No
binoculars
iceberg
Speeding
(human
error)
Not enough
lifeboats
(human
error)
The Titanic sinks
on maiden
voyage , and
1500 people die.
New
lifeboat
regulations
North
Atlantic
ice patrol
24-7
wireless
operators
3. Analyze the Multi-flow Map to
determine a thesis statement .
No
binoculars
Flares
not right
color
Speeding
Not
enough
lifeboats
The Titanic sinks
on maiden
voyage , and
1500 people die.
New
lifeboat
regulations
North
Atlantic
ice patrol
24-7
wireless
operators
Summary of causes:
Profound and repeated
human error caused the sinking
Summary of effects:
improved and standardized emergency
equipment and procedures
4. Create a thesis statement
based on the analysis of the
Multi-flow Map.
THESIS: Although the loss of life on the
Titanic was due to profound and repeated
human error, it resulted in improved and
standardized emergency equipment and
procedures on the high seas.
Remember: The thesis statement is the
most important element of the essay!
Now it’s your turn……
1. Choose a topic from your previously created
list of topics which have causes and effects.
2. Create a multi-flow map showing the causes
and effects of the event.
3. Analyze the Multi-flow Map and summarize
the causes and effects.
4. Create a thesis statement for a cause-effect
essay.
Tips for Writing a
Cause-Effect Essay
Introduction
•
•
Hook (How will this cause-effect help
someone better understand this topic? Why
is this topic important in the big picture?)
Thesis statement (summarizes the most
significant causes and effects related to the
topic)
The Body
• Writers need solid supporting ideas to develop
an argument.
• Each paragraph should be focused on a single
cause or effect that supports the thesis.
• HOWEVER, write as many paragraphs as
needed to support the thesis.
Cause-Effect Transitions
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use transition words to help
the reader follow the flow of ideas.
as a result of
since
this led to
if….then
because
therefore
consequently
so/so that
benefit
nevertheless
reason
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
in order to
occurrences
why
factors
cause
thus
due to
outcome
effect
result
The Essay’s
Conclusion
• Rewrite the thesis statement using
different wording and/or;
• Revisit the main points from the body
paragraphs and/or;
• End on some memorable thought, such
as a relevant quotation, interesting twist
of logic, or some call to action that is
related to the hook.
Teachers of all subjects are
responsible for:
• Thesis statements
• Organization
• Transitional language
• Content
Remember! Content-area teachers are
not responsible for GUM (grammar,
usage, mechanics, and spelling).
Back in the Classroom
• Post the cause-effect transition words in your
classroom.
• Model how smart readers think by using the Post-it
Response notes and allow your students to practice
the strategy while they read.
• Use the annotated cause-effect essays to help your
students become analytical readers and writers.
• Have your students write a cause-effect essay using
the Writing Order of Operations on the essay
planning page.
• Model each part of the essay planning page and
provide feedback during the drafting stage.

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