Active Participation Covert / Overt

Active Participation
USSF Referee Instructor Course
United States Soccer Federation
Active Participation
Lesson Set
Picture the last referee recertification test that
you took. Did taking that test cause you to think,
to remember and/or increase your knowledge to
some degree?
It was not possible for you to passively sit and read
without some amount of active thought.
The test served as a tool to get you to actively
participate in the learning process.
Active Participation
Lesson Objectives
At the end of this lesson you will:
• Define Active Participation
• Name the two types of Active
• Indicate the type of Active
Participation from a list of examples
Active Participation
The engagement of the learner’s
mind with that which is to be
Active Participation
• A teaching strategy that improves an
instructor’s effectiveness
• Helps keep the mind of the learner on
the objective of the lesson
• Involves consistent relevant engagement
of all the students in the lesson and
the process of learning
Active Participation
Active Participation by the
learner increases ….
the rate (how quickly)
the degree (how well)
of the learning.
Active Participation
• I see … I forget
• I hear … I remember
• I do … I understand
Active Participation
What are some ways in which we
can engage the learner’s mind?
Active Participation
Responsibilities of the Instructor
• Engage the brain of the learner
• Create relevant learning activities
• Engage students consistently
throughout the lesson
• Involve all students
Active Participation
Two Types of Active Participation:
Covert - non-observable … unseen
participation by student is
Overt - observable …. measurable
you can see or hear if student
is participating
Active Participation
Covert participation
• Demands wait-time
Instructor cannot ask
students to think of
something without giving them
time to actually do it.
Active Participation
Covert participation
• Must be relevant to learner
Instructor cannot ask students to picture
something that they don’t know.
Ex. If students were asked to picture “the
hand of God” soccer play ,some would be able
to see it in their mind, the rest would have no
relevancy or understanding.
Active Participation
Covert participation
• Must increase learner’s level of concern
Students must feel that if they don’t
participate, they will suffer the
Active Participation
Covert participation
• Must be elicited by the teacher
Instructor has to ask the students
to think, to imagine, to picture, to
remember, etc. in order for them to
begin the process.
Active Participation
Overt participation
• No wait time needed
Immediate response can be
expected and measured. Instructor
can see which students are
Active Participation
Overt participation
• Must be relevant to the
Creates a level of concern
and students are more
inclined to be attentive.
Active Participation
Overt participation
• Elicited by the Instructor
Using words like show me, write, raise
your hand, tell your neighbor, stand
Need not always be an individual response
… group response just as effective.
Active Participation
Covert / Overt
The use of COVERT and OVERT together
holds the student responsible and
accountable for their covert actions …. and
increases the quality of their overt
Direction is given for a covert activity …
allows thinking time … followed by the
instructor directing the overt activity.
Active Participation
Active participation is the number
one way to help with discipline and
behavior management.
If students think you’re going to call on
them for an answer, they will concentrate
on your question rather than pursuing
other activities.
Active Participation
Actions that promote Active Participation
• Get in the habit of calling on all students rather
than “volunteers” who raise their hands.
• “Everyone write down …”
• “Think of the last time …”
• “Show … the direction of the throw-in”
• “Hold up your hand”
• “Discuss in your group”
• Monitor the students for appropriate responses
Active Participation
Actions that hinder Active Participation
Straight lecture …. boring
Calling on the same people
Calling students in order
Sending one person to the board
Calling out a student by name prior to asking a
question …. lets everyone else off the hook.
• Saying “who can tell us?
• Answering your own question … not leaving
some wait time
Active Participation
Lesson Assignments
Write out the following and bring to the in-class
• A definition of Active Participation in your own words.
• List the two types of Active Participation with a
specific example of each.
• Indicate the type of Active Participation for each of
the 10 directions stated in the “Type of Behavior Quiz”
shown on the following slide.
Active Participation
Type of Behavior Quiz
1.____ jot down the answers in your notebook …
2.____ summarize to yourself …
3.____ make a mental list ….
4.____ give some thought to …
5.____ hold up your pencil …
6.____ discuss in your group …
7.____ show me two fingers …
8.____ draw a picture in your mind …
9.____ think of another example …
10.____ whisper to your neighbor …
Active Participation
USSF Referee Instructor Course
United States Soccer Federation

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