Ch04-Instructor Modified_Job Analysis and Job Design

Report
Two key topics in this chapter
• Job Analysis
• Job Design
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What is Job Analysis
• JOB ANALYSIS: Family of formal methods for
describing jobs and human attributes necessary for jobs.
• Answers Two Major Questions
– 1. What do people in a particular job do? (Task oriented; TDR)
– 2. What human characteristics are necessary for a job? (Person
oriented; KSAOs)
•
•
Unit of analysis is the job not the individual.
Deals with tasks/requirements for all positions within a
job classification or title rather than individual people's
jobs
Why Job Analysis is Important
to HRM
•
•
•
•
•
•
Legal foundation for job-relatedness.
Basis for HR planning.
Foundation of performance appraisal.
Basis for recruiting & selections.
Benchmark for compensation systems.
Identifies training & development needs.
Why Job Analysis is Important
to HRM (cont’d)
• Determines appropriateness of
bargaining units.
• Identifies health, safety, and security
problems.
Job Analysis and the Law
• Section 14.C.2 of the Uniform Guidelines on
Employee Selection Procedures of 1978:
– “There shall be a job analysis which includes an analysis
of the important work behaviors required for successful
performance. . . . Any job analysis should focus on work
behavior(s) and the tasks associated with them.”
• Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
– Requires that job duties and responsibilities be essential
functions for job success.
– The purpose of essential functions is to help match and
accommodate human capabilities to job requirements.
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Types of Information Collected
Work
activities
Human
requirements
Human
behaviors
Information
Collected Via
Job Analysis
Job
context
Machines, tools,
equipment, and
work aids
Performance
standards
4–7
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Performance Standards … An example
• Duty: Accurately Posting Accounts Payable



Post all invoices received within the same working
day.
Route all invoices to proper departments managers for
approval no later than the day following receipt.
An average of no more than three posting errors per
month.
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4–8
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36
Performance Standards … An Example
(cont’d)
• Meeting Daily Production Schedule



Produces no less that 426 units per working day.
Next workstation rejects no more than an average of
2% of units.
Weekly overtime does not exceed an average of 5%.
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4–9
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Uses of Job Analysis Information
Recruitment
and selection
EEO
compliance
Compensation
Information
Collected via
Job Analysis
Performance
appraisal
Discovering
unassigned duties
Training
4–10
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Key Job Analysis Outcomes
• Job Description

Statement of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities
(TDRs) of a job to be performed

Job Specification
– Statement of the needed knowledge, skills, abilities,
and other characteristics (KSAOs) of the person who
is to perform the job
– Since Griggs v Duke Power and the Civil Rights Act
of 1991, job specifications used in selection must
relate specifically to the duties of the job.
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Examples Of KSAOs For Different
Occupations
Job
Knowledge
Lawyer
Constitutional
rights
Nurse
Skill
Ability
Other Personal
Characteristics
Writing
clearly
Communication
Willingness to
work long
hours
Surgical
procedures
Drawing
blood
Remain calm
in a crisis
Plumber
Pipe design
Soldering
joints
Hand-eye
coordination
Lack of
squeamishness
in the sight of
blood
Willingness to
get dirty
Teacher
Learning
principles
Writing
clearly
Relate to
children
Commitment
to learning
Key Elements of a Job Description
• Job Title
 Indicates job duties and organizational level
• Job Identification
 Distinguishes job from all other jobs
• Essential Functions (TDRs)
 Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished
• Job Specifications (KSAOs)
 Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the
job
4–13
Job Descriptions
• Job Title
 Provides status to the employee.
 Indicates what the duties of the job entails.
 Indicates the relative level occupied by its holder in the
organizational hierarchy.
4–14
Job Descriptions (cont’d)
• Job Identification Section
 Departmental location of the job
 Person to whom the jobholder reports
 Date the job description was last revised
 Payroll or code number
 Number of employees performing the job
 Number of employees in the department where the job is located
 O*NET code number.
 “Statement of the Job”
4–15
1
Job Description for an Employment Assistant
4–16
Job Descriptions (cont’d)
• Job Duties, or Essential Functions, Section
 Statements of job duties that:

Are arranged in order of importance that indicate the weight,
or value, of each duty; weight of a duty is gauged by the
percentage of time devoted to it.

Stress the responsibilities that duties entail and the results to
be accomplished.

Indicate the tools and equipment used by the employee in
performing the job.

Should comply with law by listing only the essential functions
of the job to be performed.
4–17
1
Job Description for an Employment Assistant (cont’d)
4–18
Job Descriptions (cont’d)
• Job Specifications Section
 Personal qualifications an individual must possess in order to
perform the duties and responsibilities

The skills required to perform the job:
– Education or experience, specialized training, personal
traits or abilities, interpersonal skills or specific behavioral
attributes, and manual dexterities.

The physical demands of the job:
– Walking, standing, reaching, lifting, talking, and the
condition and hazards of the physical work environment
4–19
Highlights in HRM
Methods Used to Collect Job Analysis Data
• Five of the more popular methods are
1. Interviews
2. Questionnaires
3. Observations
4. Diaries/Logs
5. Internet (O*NET)
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Job Analysis: Interviewing Guidelines
• The job analyst and supervisor should work together
to identify the workers who know the job best.
• Quickly establish rapport with the interviewee.
• Follow a structured guide or checklist, one that lists
open-ended questions and provides space for
answers.
• Ask the worker to list his or her duties in order
of importance and frequency of occurrence.
• After completing the interview, review and verify
the data.
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4–22
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Methods for Collecting Job Analysis
Information: The Interview
• Information Sources
• Interview Formats
– Individual employees
– Structured (Checklist)
– Groups of employees
– Unstructured
– Supervisors with
knowledge of the job
• Advantages
– Quick, direct way to find
overlooked information
• Disadvantage
– Distorted information
4–23
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Methods for Collecting Job Analysis
Information: Questionnaires
• Information Source
– Have employees fill out
questionnaires to describe
their job-related duties and
responsibilities
• Questionnaire Formats
– Structured checklists
– Open-ended questions
• Advantages
– Quick and efficient way
to gather information
from large numbers of
employees
• Disadvantages
– Expense and time
consumed in preparing
and testing the
questionnaire
4–24
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Typical Data Collected by
Questionnaires
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What were the routine duties?
What were the special duties?
How much time was spent on these duties?
Who do you have to work with to do the duties?
What decisions do you regularly make?
What KSAs do you have to use?
What training is required?
What physical activities do you perform?
What are your working conditions?
Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions
Note: Use a
questionnaire like
this to interview job
incumbents, or have
them fill it out.
4–26
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Job Analysis Questionnaire for Developing Job Descriptions (cont’d)
4–27
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Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use Online
4–28
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Example of Position/Job Description Intended for Use Online (cont’d)
4–29
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Specialized Job Analysis
Questionnaires: Position Analysis
Questionnaire (PAQ)
• A sophisticated questionnaire which uses a
Likert scale to evaluate work behaviors.
• Strengths: focuses on the elements that describe
behaviors (competencies) which are relevant to the
job rather than technical aspects of the work.
• Job elements are grouped into six divisions for
evaluation.
• The focus is on behaviors necessary to do the
work.
Position Analysis
Questionnaire (PAQ)
• PAQ Dimensions:
• 1. Information Input - Where and how does
the worker get information to perform the job?
• 2. Mental Process - What levels of reasoning
does the job require?
• 3. Work Output - What physical activities
must be performed?
Position Analysis
Questionnaire (PAQ)
• PAQ Dimensions cont’d:
• 4. Relationship with Others - What level of
interdependency does the job require?
• 5. Job Context - What are the working
conditions associated with the job?
• 6. Other - What other factors are relevant to the
job beyond the previous five dimensions?
Position Analysis
Questionnaire (PAQ)
• Shortcomings of PAQ:
• PAQ is written at the college level.
• It can only be effectively administered by
an expert.
• It is very costly.
• It is very time consuming.
Portion of a Completed Page from the Position Analysis Questionnaire
The 194 PAQ elements are
grouped into six dimensions.
This exhibit lists 11 of the
“information input” questions
or elements. Other PAQ
pages contain questions
regarding mental processes,
work output, relationships
with others, job context, and
other job characteristics.
4–34
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Methods for Collecting Job Analysis
Information: Observation
• Information Source
– Observing and noting the
physical activities of
employees as they go
about their jobs by
managers.
• Advantages
– Provides first-hand
information
– Reduces distortion
of information
• Disadvantages
– Time consuming
– Reactivity response distorts
employee behavior
– Difficulty in capturing
entire job cycle
– Of little use if job involves a
high level of mental activity
4–35
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Methods for Collecting Job Analysis
Information: Participant Diaries/Logs
• Information Source
– Workers keep a
chronological diary or log
of what they do and the
time spent on each
activity
• Advantages
– Produces a more complete
picture of the job
– Employee participation
• Disadvantages
– Distortion of information
– Depends upon employees
to accurately recall their
activities
4–36
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Internet-Based Job Analysis
• Advantages
– Collects information in a standardized format
from geographically dispersed employees
– Requires less time than face-to-face
interviews
– Collects information with minimal intervention
or guidance
– Still use another technique
for legal reasons.
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4–37
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Using O*Net for Writing Job Descriptions
4–38
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Obtain Job Duties from O*NET
1. Go to: http://online.onetcenter.org
2. Click on Find Occupations
1. Retail salesperson
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Using O*Net for Writing Job Descriptions (cont’d)
4–40
Copyright
© 2011
Pearson
Education,
Inc.
publishing
as or
Prentice
© 2012
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
scanned,scanned,
duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
useexcept
as
©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
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Reserved.
May
be copied,
or duplicated,
or in for
part,
for use as
Hall
permitted
in
a
license
distributed
with
a
certain
product
or
service
or
otherwise
on
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password-protected
website
for
classroom
use.
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
40 of 36
26
Using O*Net for Writing Job Descriptions (cont’d)
4–41
Copyright
© 2011
Pearson
Education,
Inc.
publishing
as or
Prentice
© 2012
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
scanned,scanned,
duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
useexcept
as
©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
be copied,
or duplicated,
or in for
part,
for use as
Hall
permitted
in
a
license
distributed
with
a
certain
product
or
service
or
otherwise
on
a
password-protected
website
for
classroom
use.
permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use.
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Job Design
• The process of defining the way work will be
performed and the tasks that will be required
in a given job.
• Four basic approaches

Behavioral (motivational)
– Job enrichment and job enlargement
– Job characteristics (Hackman & Oldman approach)



Industrial engineering (mechanistic)
Ergonomic (biological)
Perceptual-motor
© 2012
Learning.
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Reserved.
May not
be not
copied,
scanned,scanned,
or duplicated,
in whole or in
in whole
part, except
useexcept
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©
2012Cengage
Cengage
Learning.
All Rights
Reserved.
May
be copied,
or duplicated,
or in for
part,
for use as
permitted
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withwith
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or otherwise
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Job Enlargement and Job Enrichment: A Comparison
© 2012
Learning.
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May not
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2012Cengage
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Learning.
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Reserved.
May
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for use as
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The Job Characteristics Model: Basic Components
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in whole
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2012Cengage
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Learning.
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Reserved.
May
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for use as
permitted
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withwith
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or otherwise
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Characteristics of Jobs
Hackman & Oldman’s Model of
Job Characteristics
• Skill Variety – level of different activities
required to perform the job (assembly line
v. law enforcement).
• Task Identity – the extent to which a the
job includes a whole identifiable unit of
work that results in a visible outcome
(assembly line v. Orange County Chopper).
Characteristics of Jobs
• Autonomy – the level of individual control
the individual exerts over the work and its
scheduling (assembly line v. law
enforcement).
• Task Significance – the impact that the job
has other people (assembly line v. hurricane
relief worker).
• Feedback – amount of information
individuals receive regarding work
outcomes.
Behavioral (motivational) job design approach
© 2012
Learning.
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May not
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Learning.
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Reserved.
May
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36
Industrial engineering (mechanistic) job design
approach
© 2012
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May not
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Learning.
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Reserved.
May
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part,
for use as
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or otherwise
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Ergonomic (biological) job design approach
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in whole
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2012Cengage
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Learning.
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Perceptual-motor job design approach
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part,
for use as
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