PDCA and beyond-index cards

Report
PDCA and beyond
Hand-out
Jos Van Thienen
Almada, Portugal
May 2012
Fathers of the quality revolution
30s: Walter A. Shewhart
Discussed the concept of the
continuous improvement cycle
(PDCA) in his 1939 book,
"Statistical Method From the
Viewpoint of Quality Control“
50s: W. Edward Deming
Modified and popularized the
Shewart cycle in the 50s to what is
now referred to as the Deming
Cycle.
Two tools
PDCA
Hard
Instrumental
Strategy
IMAR
Soft
Human
Strategy
focus
PDCA as a scaffold for
today’s session
Teach as you preach
Plan
Do
Check
Act
Learning objective: learn about
quality cycle methodology
Plan
(1) Understand the basic
principles of quality cycles,
i.e. the how and the when,
the why and the what
(2) Learn how to implement a
rapid cycle or PDCA
improvement process
(3) Exchange experiences (learn
from and with each other)
PDCA and beyond
Part One
PDCA for continuous
development
Plan
Do
Act
Check
PDCA as a way of monitoring quality
(1) A simple tool, particularly suited
for day-to-day usage
on different levels and
for different purposes.
(2) As a learning cycle it fits perfectly well in the
frame of Demings TQMP.
(3) It puts into practice the general principles of
quality development.
Quality development: general
principles
 Contextual
 Systematic
 Cyclical
 Goaldirected
 Timebound
TOGETHER
Involve other team
members
PROCESS
2
ANALYTIC
Pass through
different stages
Identify the
problem
Cases
P D C A : S T E P S
CHALLENGE
Be positive. Turn
problems into
challenges
GOAL
Define a goal and
keep the scope
Hopping into PDCA: how well did you
perform?
• Is the goal or the project scope clearly defined? (Mrs G)
• Did you reframe or restate the problem in terms of a challenge? (Mrs C)
• Did you plan to collect data and analyse them before you start looking for possible solutions?(Mrs
A)
• Did you look for more than one solution (alternatieve solutions)? (Mrs A)
• Did you plan to run through more than one cycle?
• Did you plan to include other team members into the process? (Mr T)
• Was it your intention to celebrate successes? (Mrs C)
• Did you plan occasions to communicate about your project ? (Mr T)
• Will the process you set up pass through different stages (check, act, …)? (Mr P)
• Did you plan to measure the results in other ways than by using written inquiries only? (Mr P)
PLAN
 Define the problem (turn into a
challenge) and set goals
 Collect data and analyse them
 Come up with alternative solutions and
select them
 Plan the project milestones and
incorporate actions in a plan of action
DO
 Do changes to solve the problems
 Do them on a small or experimental scale
 You can test whether they work or not, and
easily adjust course
 You don’t disrupt day-to-day routine
activities
 You don’t worry people (fear for change!)
 Communicate what you are doing (and why)
CHECK
 Gather relevant information (formal and
informal, qualitative and quantitative
assessments)
 Deming renamed this step: study. Study what
worked or what did not work.
 Report your results and communicate them
(make it a ‘common’ project)
ACT
 Re-act
 Standardize successful solutions
 Pre-act
 Find opportunities for furthter
improvements
 Provide safeguards to prevent relapse
into the previous stage
Check
PDCA and beyond
Part two
Empowerment
by means of
IMAR
Inspire
Mobilize
Reflect
Appreciate
Learning objective
(1) Learn about how we can
Plan
empower people (i.e. bring in
the human factor).
Empowerment through




Inspiration
Motivation/mobilization
Appreciation
Reflection (reflective practice)
(2) Exchange experiences (learn
from and with each other)
1
Leadership pepper
INSPIRE
Inspire
Give incentives
Find new ideas
Create challenges
Discover new possibilities
Inspire
Start from a mission or a
vision which is known and
supported
Listen to what people are
occupied with and what
they are engaged in
Open communication
Find and spread
information about new
developments in
education
Find topics which have a
positive effect on student
learning or which respond
to student needs
Show people what works
well and keep them
informed
Create room for personal
growth and opportunities
to gain new ideas or
insights
Find opportunities for staff
members to express their
personal ambitions and to
discuss new ideas
Trust your people (collegial
trust)
Install a challenging
context and introduce a
forward-looking glance
Define common goals,
shared values, accepted
priorities. Create a sense of
togetherness
(connectivity)
Organize learning
opportunities
Inspire (2)
Leadership pepper
2
Spread enthousiasm
MOTIVATE
Mobilize
Get people going
Make them express their
inspiration
Make them use their
competences in order to do this
Mobilize/Motivate
Create a sense of
urgency
Take the fear out of
the future (niet
problematiseren
maar kapstokken
aanreiken)
Stimulate people to
use what they have
learned in practice
Make things fun
Convince people to try
and to experiment
Encourage people to
take risks and to
colour outside the
lines.
Make people believe
in their abilities.
Show people that you
believe in their
competences (i.e.
seek their advice )
Organize
opportunities to
apply what they have
learned
Be a leader in learning
(‘They’re always
watching. What they
see is what you’ll get’)
Mobilize/Motivate (2)
Leadership pepper
APPRECIATE
Appreciate
3
Express what’s of a certain value
in your organisation
Appreciate efforts and results
Pay attention to each other’s
contributions
Appreciative inquiry: what?
Attitude or perspective
Method or strategy
Discovery
Dream
Design
Destiny
Appreciate
Pay attention to each
other’s efforts, listen to
each other
Turn problems into
challenges, reframe
problems
Take positive experiences
as a starting point, start
from things that are
already completed or from
strong moments in the past
Create a positive
atmosphere, express
appreciation
Give complements and
rewards
Celebrate successes
Discover the positive core
in your personal life or in
your organisation (that
which gives you energy)
• Find out what you have already done in order to realize your
goals. Discover the positive core. What are already positive
Discovery
examples?
Dream
• What can you do to create more such examples? Find new
possibilities or solutions, rethink problems, see new
connections.
Design
• Use the positive elements (building stones) of stages 1 and 2 to
develop scenario’s for the future. Desing a srategy and plans.
• Start shaping the future. Execute the plans.
Destiny
Appreciative inquiry as a strategy
Leadership pepper
REFLECT
Reflect
4
Look back upon the process and its
results
Try to define problems and successes
Talk with others about the heart of the
matter
Look ahead for new challenges
Reflect
Think and talk about
things that give you
energy
Coach (new) colleagues
Provide deep and
systematic reflection on
the goal and
implications of changes.
Think and talk about
student results (are they
proceeding towards the
goals?)
Create an open culture:
opportunities to learn
and to discuss things, to
express experiences and
feelings
x
Discovery
Dream
Design
Destiny
•Goal
•Reality
(story-telling)
•Options
•Will
(opportunities)
(actions)
• Start shaping the future
The GROW model for personal growth

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