Self Efficacy

Self Efficacy
Juelaila J. Raziuddin
• Background: Social Cognitive Theory
– ( Bandura, 1997)
• Self Efficacy Definition
• Self Efficacy vs Self Concept ( Self Esteem)
• Empirical Studies
– Path Analysis of Self Efficacy on SRL
– Static Model and Dynamic Model of interactive
Learning Environment
Social Cognitive Theory
(Albert Bandura ,1997,1986; Frank Pajares,1996)
• Definition(social cognitive theory)
– one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations
– Self-referent thought mediates between knowledge and
action;through self-reflection individuals evaluate their own
experiences and thought processes
– According to Bandura's theory, people with high self-efficacy—that is,
those who believe they can perform well—are more likely to view
difficult tasks as something to be mastered rather than something to
be avoided.
Conception of Triadic Reciprocality
•How individuals interpret the results
of their performance attainments
informs and alters their environments
and their self-beliefs, which in turn
inform and alter their subsequent
•Interactions that result in a triadic
• (a) personal factors in the form of
cognition, affect, and biological
•(b) behavior, and
• (c) environmental influences
•Because personal agency is socially
rooted and operates within
sociocultural influences, individuals
are viewed both as products and as
producers of their own environments
and of their social systems
• Background: Social Cognitive Theory (
• Self Efficacy Definition
– Self Efficacy vs Self Concept ( Self Esteem)
• Empirical Studies
– Path Analysis of Self Efficacy on SRL
– Static Model and Dynamic Model of interactive
Learning Environment
Self Efficacy Beliefs
• Depending on what is being
– May entail regulation of
contextual factors
own motivation,
thought processes,
affective states and actions,
or changing environmental
– Judgments are made more
task-and situation-specific in
reference to some type of goal
• Thus assessed at a more
microanalytic level
• Report the level , generality,and
strength of their confidence to
accomplish a task or succeed in
certain situation
Self Efficacy vs. Self Concept
Self Efficacy
Self Concept
• concept to relate to more
circumscribed situations and
• concerned with beliefs of
personal capability, they are
judgments of one's capabilities
to perform given actions.
• asks, “Can I do this?”
• "How confident are you that
you can successfully ...."
• general attitude toward
• is measured at a more general
level of specificity and includes
the evaluation of such
competence and the feelings
of self-worth (selfesteem)associated with the
behaviors in question.
• asks, “How do I feel about
myself?”( I know myself)
• “How good are you in
English?”( Zimmerman,2000)
Various Self-Efficacy Constructs
Sources of Self Efficacy Beliefs
Mastery Experience
• the interpreted result of purposive performance, is the
most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs.
• individuals gauge the effects of their actions, and their
interpretations of these effects help create their efficacy
– Success raises self-efficacy; failure lowers it.
• important implications for the self-enhancement model of
academic achievement ; to increase student achievement
in school, educational efforts should focus on raising
students' feelings of self-worth or of competence.
Vicarious Experience
• the effects produced by the actions of others
• when people are uncertain about their own abilities or have limited
prior experience, they become more sensitive to it.
– effects of models are particularly relevant in this context ( Dale
• Students are likely to develop the belief that "I can do that" when a highly
regarded teacher models excellence in an academic endeavor or activity.
• involves the social comparisons made with others
– peer groups and peer pressure can come into play
Social/Verbal Persuasions
Individuals also create and develop
self-efficacy beliefs as a result of the
social messages they receive from
persuasions can involve exposure to
the verbal judgments of others ;
persuaders can play an important
part in the development of an
individual's self-beliefs.
– Most adults can recall something that
was said to them (or done to/for them)
during their childhood that had a
profound effect on their confidence
throughout the rest of their life.
– effective persuasions should not be
confused with empty inspirational
– positive persuasions may work to
encourage and empower; negative
persuasions may work to defeat and
weaken self-beliefs
Physiological States
• anxiety, stress, arousal, fatigue, and mood states
• people can "read" themselves, leads to realization of
the thoughts and emotional states that individuals
have themselves created
• they can gauge their confidence by the emotional state
they experience as they contemplate an action
– However, typical anxiety experienced before an important
endeavor is NOT a guide to low self-efficacy.
• The butterflies in the stomach phenomenon quite normal
apprehension most people experience before important events,
• Strong emotional reactions to a task, however, provide cues about
the anticipated success or failure of the outcome.
– Overly strong arousal can weaken performance.
Academic Self Efficacy
• refers to a student’s belief that he or she can
successfully engage in and complete coursespecific academic tasks, such as accomplishing
course outcomes, demonstrating competency
skills used in the course, satisfactorily
completing assignments, passing the course,
and meeting the requirements to continue on
in his or her major.
Comments? Questions?
• Background: Social Cognitive Theory (
• Self Efficacy Definition
– Self Efficacy vs Self Concept ( Self Esteem)
• Empirical Studies
– Path Analysis of Self Efficacy on SRL
– Static Model and Dynamic Model of interactive
Learning Environment
Self Efficacy in SRL
(Barry J. Zimmerman, 2000)
• Affective construct highly accurate predictor of
students’ motivational state and their learning
• relationships among self-efficacy perceptions, selfefficacy for self-regulation, academic self-regulatory
processes, and academic achievement
• demonstrate that academic self-efficacy mediated the
influence of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning on
academic achievement
• Academic self-efficacy influenced achievement directly
(beta = .21) and indirectly by raising students' grade
goals (beta = .36).
Path Analysis ( Zimmerman, 2000)
• self-efficacy and personal goal setting
– predict final course grades in high school social
studies, increase by 31% over a measure of prior
grades in social studies.
– compared with the verbal subscale of the
Scholastic Aptitude Test, increase 35% of students’
final grades
Self Efficacy Model in ITS
(Scott W. McQuiggan,Bradford W. Mott, and
James C. Lester,2008)
• Static model ( online
• Dynamic model
( physiological state
Evaluation Data Flow
Interactive Learning Environment
Evaluation( Crystal Island)
Crystal Island Character in the Lab
Interactive learning environment user
outfitted with biofeedback apparatus
( measures heart rate )
Model Attribute Effects on Self-efficacy
Self Efficacy Level: Two level ( High, Low);Three Level( Low,Medium,
High);Four Level(Very Low,Low, High, Very High); Five Level (Very Low, Low,
Medium, High, Very High)
Motivational and affective constructs that both influence (and
are influenced by) a student’s physiological state.
The heart rate for the student reporting high self-efficacy gradually drops as
they encounter a new question, presumably because of their confidence in their ability to
successfully solve the problem. This phenomenon is noteworthy since the students were
in fact not given feedback about whether or not their responses were correct. Instead the
student’s self-appraisal seems to lead to the determination of low efficacy, an inability to
successfully achieve at the current task, without a requirement of confirmation of their
Findings on interactive learning
150 attributes features for online tutorial;247 attributes feature for interactive
LE Dynamic model. As self efficacy granularity increases, accuracy decreases.
• Encompasses Bandura’s sources of self efficacy; four factors types of
– Enactive Mastery Experience
• by creating experiences in which the difficulty of the task or specific problems is adapted
to the individual student
– Vicarious Experience
• peer learning companions can create adaptable vicarious experiences for students; a
peer companion agent fails or struggles at a task.
– Social Persuasion
• The impact is determined by the value the student places on the persuader, so an
established relationship between a tutor and the student makes verbal persuasion all the
more powerful.
• Verbal performance feedback ensures that students are aware of goal progression,
immersed in challenging tasks, and may contribute to student task persistence.
– Physiological State
• Self efficacy modeling and affect recognition to operate in tandem
• Changes in affective state and the subsequent changes in student physiology will impact
self-appraisals of efficacy.
What does this all mean?
• Relationship of motivation (intrinsic , extrinsic)
and self efficacy – Recall Ryan’s class
• Relationship of Expectancy Value and Self
Efficacy – Recall Dovan’s class
What leads to intrinsic motivation?
• The development of feelings of competence
for a task (Deci & Ryan, 1985)
– Related to FOK, JOL
– But more closely related to self-efficacy, which
we’ll talk about later in the semester
• Must be accompanied by sense of autonomy
– A sense that you are choosing to do the task
What leads to intrinsic motivation?
• Choice (Zuckerman et al., 1978), even trivial choice (Cordova &
Lepper, 1996)
• Challenge (Koestner et al., 1987; Mitchell, 1996)
– Self-efficacy models could inform decisions about the appropriate
challenge level of tasks to
– create adaptive learning experiences that sustain ideal levels of selfefficacy and motivation,
– which in turn support effective learning.
• Curiosity (Asserted repeatedly in literature, starting with Malone &
Lepper (1978), (but couldn’t find any empirical proof of this)
• Fantasy Context (Lepper & Cordova, 1992; Cordova & Lepper, 1996)
– Although it’s worth noting that their comparisons were between
“fantasy” and “no context at all”, which is confounded
Self efficacy and Intrinsic,Extrinsic
(Mohammed Chowdhury, 2007)
• Empirical results reveal
– statistically positive correlations between selfefficacy and performance (r = .289),
– self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation (r=. 490),
– self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation (.297),
– intrinsic motivation and performance (.327), and
– extrinsic motivation and performance (.251).
students high in self-efficacy and motivation
performed better than those low in self-efficacy
and motivation.
Self Concept and Expectancy Value
The self-concept belief represents students' perceptions of their competence in different
domains; it is their evaluation of their ability to do a task currently (in contrast to the
future orientation of expectancy for success). Eccles and Wigfield are careful to note that
these self-concept beliefs can be relatively domain specific and may vary by subject area
in school contexts (see also Harter, 1983, 1985a; Marsh, 1989, 1990b).
Comments, Questions

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