Innovation in 17th Century Landscape Painting and the Hudson River School •Art flourished/extraordinary number and quality of paintings. •Coincided with beginning of Dutch dominance in the rich trades. •1602 Dutch East India Company (VOC) trade with Asia/world’s biggest trade and transport enterprise. •1621 Dutch West India Company (WIC) trade with West Africa and America. •Despite wars/ Netherlands became powerful and prosperous. •Dutch invented an independent artistic tradition. Specialization of Genres •Painters began to specialize to keep up with increased demand without sacrificing quality •Northern Influx of talented Flemish artists •Dutch artists turned to their own landscape upon winning their independence • Esaias van de Velde and Jan van Goyen •New vision of Landscape/ Coming down to Earth •Different in subject matter and form than in any other European culture •Innovative paintings of local Dutch coasts, streams, fields, skies, cities •highlight plain, productive character of Dutch people and land Masters of Tonal Painting • Esias van de Velde/ important role in development of landscape painting in the 17th century • His Ferryboat set the tone for a long tradition of Dutch landscape painting • First instance of a typical Dutch river landscape in a large format • Pupil Jan van Goyen along with Solomon van Ruysdael developed the genre further • Became masters of tonal painting • Developed new and simplified compositions Specialization within landscape genre • Tremendous innovation • Repetition of subject matter & motifs increased skill, speed, profit • Jan van Goyen-rivers and polders • Aaert van der Meer-nocturnal pieces • Jan Porcellis-the raging sea • Phillip Konnick- original majestic panorama •Overarching innovative concept/began focus on natural environment •Seemingly realistic likeness •Rapid development during 1st three decades of 17th century •Realism replaced idealism •Landscape prominent subject/ no longer just a background •Fantasied mountain landscapes made way for natural looking landscapes •Rooted in Claes Jansg Visscher’s natural looking etchings •Inspired by Flemish masters Joachim Patinir & Pieter Breugel the Elder •Shift from historical, allegorical, and biblical to the Durch natural environment began in Haarlem •Innovations in color palette and compositional devices and technique •New sketchy execution •Left some ground showing •Limited palette/ tonal •Less labor intensive techniques •Produced large volume quickly •Commanded lower prices (20 guilders per painting) •Revenues substantial/ high turnover •Though landscape paintings were considered in the middle tier of Hoogstraten’s hierarchy of genres they were one of the most affordable. •Became very popular •Large numbers of tonal landscape paintings were created. •Seemed to fluctuate with market forces. •By mid Century, landscapes were the most widely produced and collected category of painting. •Prices and availability made landscape paintings the art form of the middle class. •Stylistic development/ close discussion of artists and paintings •Cultural association/hidden meanings/symbolism •Simon Shuma- historical, geographical, and cultural associations •Josua Bruyn-pictorial and literary sources/ iconographic skeleton •Verisimilitude (truthful depictions) naer het leven uyt den ghest stock images, sketches •Protectionist Guilds and open market •After 1660 popular taste favored luxury over unadorned nature •Paintings no longer looked identifiably Dutch Figure 1- The Ferryboat Esaias van de Velde 1622 Figure 2- After the Rain Jan van Goyen 1631 Figure 3- Landscape with a Fence Solomon van Ruysdael 1630 Figure 4- Stone Bridge Rembrandt van Rijn Late 1630’s Figure 5- River Landscape Aelbert Cuyp 1655-60 Figure 6- Haarlem Bleaching Fields Jan van Ruisdael 1670 Figure 7- The Windmill at Wijk bij Duurstede Jacob van Ruisdael 1670 Figure 8- Avenue at Middleharnis Meindert Hobbema 1689 Hudson River Painters/ early 19th century America •Stylistically the Hudson River Painters followed the Dutch landscape painters. •Sky once again treated as an essential part of landscape •Between 1825 and 1875/ group of painters created landscapes of Hudson River Valley and beyond •Influenced by European painting but set out to make theirs distinctly American •Mission: create American landscape vision based on exploration of Nature •Natural world/resource for spiritual renewal and expression of culture and national identity • Launched by Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand, and Thomas Doughty • Created monumental paintings with majestic luminous light • Captured grandeur of American landscape picturesque and wilderness • Influenced conservation & preservation/travel & recreation • Second generation more idealized, romantic with more luminosity George Inness, Frederick Church, Albert Bierstadt Figure 9- Oxbow Thomas Cole 1836 Figure 10- Kindred Spirits Asher B. Durand 1849 Figure 11- Mount Katahdin from Millnocket Camp Frederick Church 1895 The following ink and watercolor illustrations were done by NEH Summer Seminar participant, Martha Kempe, while in the Netherlands. Throughout the year she plans to create oil paintings based on these, her photographs, and wonderful memories of the Netherlands. Amsterdam Canal Rembrant’s House Zuiderkerk Waag Amsterdam’s only remaining gatehouse Houses along the canal Keizersgracht emperor’s canal The three neck gables Koninklijk Paleis Begijnhof of Amsterdam With special thanks to Professor Koot and the National Endowment of Humanities for making this wonderful opportunity possible.