Chemistry Matter Notes [Autosaved].

Report
Physical Science
Priority Standard
PSc.2.1Understand types, properties,
and structure of matter.
Supporting Standards
PSc.2.1.1 Classify matter as: homogeneous or heterogeneous; pure substance or mixture; element or compound; metals, nonmetals,
metalloids; solution, colloid, or suspension.
PSc.2.1.2 Explain the phases of matter and the physical changes that matter undergoes.
PSc.2.1.3 Compare physical and chemical properties of various types of matter.
Big Ideas
Students will understand that …
·
There are specific processes required to separate a mixture.
·
Matter is classified based on its characteristics.
·
Phases of matter are determined based on temperature, pressure, and density
·
Matter undergoes physical changes including changes of phase.
Essential Questions
·
What techniques are used to separate a mixture?
·
How is matter described, classified, and changed?
·
How can I differentiate between the phases of
matter?
·
How does matter change from one phase to
another?
Matter
States of Matter
2.1.2
1. Anything that has mass and takes space
·Gas
·Liquid
·Solid
Matter
anything that has mass and takes up space
mass
the amount of matter in an
object
volume the amount of space an object takes
up
density the amount of mass per unit of
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter
1. all matter is composed of tiny particles
volume
m
D= v
2. These particles are in constant motion
grams
mL or cm3
3. the amount of motion is proportional to
temperature. Increased temperature
means increased motion
http://preparatorychemistry.com/KMT_flash. animation
htm
http://www.hhs.homewood.k12.al.us/~kreaves/KineticMolecularTheory.
html
Density Problems
CHEMISTRY
_______________________
DENSITY
____________ period _____
name
date
1. Determine the density of a metal if 27.35 grams has a volume of 9.08 cm .
3
_____________________
2. Metal A has a density of 1.89 g/cm3. The volume of metal A is 9.237 cm3. Determine the
mass of metal A.
_____________________
3. Determine the volume of an object if the density is 3.69 g/cm3 and the mass is 49.06 grams.
_____________________
4. The density of wood is 0.512 g/cm3 . The volume of a piece of wood is 37.3 cm3.
Determine the mass of the piece of wood.
_____________________
5. The mass of a gold block is 279.45 grams. The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. Determine the
volume of the gold block.
_____________________
6. Substance A has a mass of 3.69 grams and a volume of 4.53 cm3 . Determine the density.
_____________________
7. Does substance A (question 6) sink or float in water?
_____________________
8. Does substance A (question 6) sink or float in gasoline?
_____________________
9. Determine the density of a substance if the mass is 17.6 g and the volume is 15.23 cm3 .
_____________________
Density Problems
10. The density of aluminum is 2.70 g/cm3 . What is the mass of a piece of aluminum if the
volume is 8.70 cm3 ?
_____________________
11. A piece of metal has a volume of 35.47 cm3 and a mass of 196.2 g. Determine the
density.
_____________________
12. A plastic ball has a volume of 25.3 cm3 and a mass of 18.06 g. Will the ball sink of float in
water?
_____________________
13. The density of a metal is 15.4 g/cm3 . Determine the mass of a hunk of the metal if the
volume of the is 6.378 grams.
_____________________
14. Determine the volume of a gas sample if the density of the gas is 0.00356 g/cm3 and the
mass of the gas is 1.56 grams.
_____________________
15. Determine the mass of a gas sample if the density of the gas is 0.0145 g/cm3 and the
volume of the gas sample is 8.54 cm3 .
_____________________
16. Determine the density of a gas sample if the mass of the gas is 5.75 grams and the
volume
of the gas sample is 29.60 cm3 .
_____________________
17. Determine the mass of a sample of titanium if the volume of the titanium is 46.7 cm3whil.
_____________________
States of Matter
Solid
Definite shape
Definite volume
Incompressible
Little expansion upon heating
Molecular movement very slow
States of Matter
·Liquid
Shape of container
Definite volume
Incompressible
Slight expansion upon heating
Molecules move around each
other in flowing manner
States of Matter
·Gas
Shape of container
Volume of container
Highly compressible
High level of expansion upon heating
Molecules move in a random, chaotic manner
~ entropy
·Plasma
States of Matter
Definition: Plasma is a distinct phase of matter, separate from the traditional
solids, liquids, and gases.
It is a collection of charged particles that respond strongly and collectively to electromagnetic fields,
taking the form of gas-like clouds or ion beams.
Since the particles in plasma are electrically charged (generally by being stripped of electrons), it is frequently
described as an "ionized gas."
Plasma was first identified (as "radiant mattter") by Sir William Crookes in 1879.
Sir J.J. Thomson identified the nature of the matter in 1897.
It was Irving Langmuir who assigned the term "plasma" in 1928.
It is odd to consider that plasma is actually the most common phase of matter,
especially since it was the last one discovered.
Flame, lightning, interstellar nebulae, stars, and even the empty vastness of space
are all examples of the plasma state of matter.
http://physics.about.com/od/glossary/g/plasma.ht
m
Virtual labs for states of matter
http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/E17/
E17.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/physics/states-ofmatter.html
Phase Changes of Matter
PSc.2.1.2 Explain the Phases of Matter
and the physical changes that matter
undergoes.
·
How does matter change from one phase to
another?
·How can I differentiate between the phases of
matter?
Phase Changes of Matter
Matter changing from one state to another
Based on temperature, pressure, and density
Which one is this phase change based on?
Phase Changes of Matter
Physical Property of Matter
All matter can change its state
CHEMISTRY TERM
PHASE CHANGE
Freezing
Reduce energy ~ lower
temperature
Liquid to Solid
Solid to Liquid
Heat of Fusion (Freezing and
Melting point) add energy ~ heat
Heat of Vaporization (boiling point ) Liquid to Gas
Condensation ~ energy is taken
from molecules Shower, Cold
breath
Sublimation ~energy is taken in
dry ice
Deposition ~ frost
Gas to Liquid
Solid to Gas
Gas to Solid
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_changes
.html
Phase Changes of Matter
Law of Conservation of Matter
matter cannot be created or destroyed during a chemical
reaction
~ just changes from one state to another
http://employees.oneonta.edu/viningwj/modules/CI_law_of_conservation_of_matter_4_3.html
Law of Conservation of Mass
mass cannot be created or destroyed, but
changed into different forms.
http://www.docbrown.info/page04/4_73calcs03com.ht
m
Phase Change Diagram
1000 Celsius
00 Celsius
2120 F
320 F
http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&biw=1024&bih=557&tbm=isch&tbnid=qujGxkU1GrQcM%3A&imgrefurl=http%3A%2F%2Fcommons.wikimedia.org%2Fwiki%2FFile%3AWater_Phase_Change_Diagram.png&docid=QRq13g_QEUCUM&imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fupload.wikimedia.org%2Fwikipedia%2Fcommons%2Fe%2Fe5%2FWater_Phase_Change_Diagram.png&w=848&h=457&ei=w0npUrbtMIPVkQfc_4DACA&zoom=1&iact=rc&d
531&page=1&start=0&ndsp=6&ved=0CGQQrQMwAw
Phase Changes of Matter Virtual Lab
http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/states-ofmatter
http://www.learningscience.org/psc3bstrucpropmatt
er.htm
Day Three
Day Three
Day Three
Day Three
Properties of Matter
Properties of Matter
2.1.3
copper.org
·Physical Property
Any characteristic of a substance that can be observed without changing
what the substance is made of ~ composition
EX. color, solubility, odor, hardness, density, phase changes (mp,bp,fp),
viscosity (resistance to flowing), hardness, conductivity, malleability, ductility
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Properties of Matter 2.1.3
·Physical Change
Change in matter that does not change its identity
Change in matter that does not change its composition
EXAMPLES:
Cutting into, freezing, evaporating, compressing,boiling
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makewav.e
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dreamstime.co
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Properties of Matter
·Chemical Property
The ability of substances to undergo chemical reactions and to form ne
substances
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Flammmability ~ materials that can burn
Combustibility ~ materials that can explode
Reactivity ~ How substances will react with other
substances
EX. rust, burn, rot, decompose, ferment, explosive, corrosive
winesearcher.com
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scimed-processsafety.co.uk
Flammmability
Combustibility
Properties of Matter
·Chemical Change
Transforms one type of matter into another kind, which may
have different properties
The change of a substance into a different substance
produces
reacts
neutralizes
chemical reaction
Signs of Chemical Change
1. Production of Gas ----> Fizzing/Bubbling
3. Color Change
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2. Formation of Precipitate ------> insoluble solid
4. Release of Energy ------> light or explosion
Properties of Matter
·Chemical Change
Reactants (starting substances) become products
(ending substances)
Four Indicators of a Chemical Change
1. Gas is produced
2. Color change occurs (may also be physical)
3. Energy in the form of heat is either released or absorbed
4. Precipitate is produced
Physical and Chemical Changes and Properties of Matter Worksheet
Classify the following as chemical change (cc), chemical property (cp), physical change (pc), or
physical property (pp).
1. _____ Heat conductivity
2. _____ Silver tarnishing
3. _____ sublimation
4. _____ magnetizing steel
5. _____ length of metal object
6. _____ shortening melting
7. _____ exploding dynamite
8. _____ Combustible
9. _____ Water freezing
10. _____ Wood burning
11. _____ Acid resistance
12. _____ Brittleness
13. _____ Milk souring
14. _____ baking bread
Identify the following as being true or false to the left of the sentence.
_____ 15. A change in size or shape is a physical change.
_____ 16. A chemical change means a new substance with new properties was formed.
_____ 17. An example of a chemical change is when water freezes.
_____ 18. When platinum is heated, then cooled to its original state, we say this is a physical change.
_____ 19. When milk turns sour, this is a physical change because a change in odor does not indicate a
chemical change.
_____ 20. When citric acid and baking soda mix, carbon dioxide is produced and the temperature decreases.
This must be a chemical change.
Identify each of the following as a physical or chemical change.
21. _____ You leave your bicycle out in the rain and it rusts.
22. _____ A sugar cube dissolves.
23. _____ Scientist break-up water into oxygen and hydrogen gas.
24. _____ Burning coal for a barbecue.
25. ______ Trimming a bush because it has grown too tall.
Identify each of the following as an example of a physical property or a chemical property.
1.
Silver tarnishes when it comes in contact with hydrogen sulfide in the air.
2.
A banana is yellow.
3.
A sheet of copper can be pounded into a bowl.
4.
Barium melts at 725 C.
5.
Gasoline is flammable.
6.
A diamond is the hardest natural substance.
7.
Helium does not react with any other element.
8.
A bar of lead is more easily bent than is a bar of aluminum of the same size.
9.
Potassium metal is kept submerged in oil to prevent contact with oxygen or water.
10.
An apple will turn brown is left in oxygen.
11.
Diamond dust can be used to cut or grind most other materials.
12.
Acid in tomato sauce can corrode aluminum foil.
13.
Rocks containing carbonates can be identified because they fizz when hydrochloric acid is applied.
14.
A piece of charcoal, which is mostly the substance carbon, glows red, gives off heat, and becomes a
gray ash.
Virtual Lab for Properties of Matter
Physical and Chemical Properties
http://www.glencoe.com/sites/common_assets/science/virtual_labs/BL01/B
L01.html
Turn in results
http://vital.cs.ohio.edu/?page_id=
161
go through tutorial
Day Four
Day Four
Day Four
Day Four
Classification of Matter
2.1.1
Two Broad Classifications
Pure Substances
Elements
Compounds
Mixtures
Homogeneous / Solutions
Heterogeneous/ Suspensions
Classification of Matter
Pure Substances:
Elements and Compounds
Have a definite and consistent composition
They cannot be broken down into anything else by
physical or chemical means.
Classification of Matter
Pure Substances: elements and compounds
1. Elements
- Simplest form of pure substance.
- Consist of only one type of atom
- On periodic table ~ have a symbol
EX. oxygen, iron, carbon, silver
Three Types of Elements
1. Metals
Solids, malleable, ductile, good conductors,
mercury the only liquid at room temperature.
Largest group of elements.
2. Nonmetals
Solids and gases, brittle, poor conductors.
Bromine the only liquid at room temperature.
3. Metalloids
Share properties of both.
Smallest group of elements.
Properties of Metals
1. Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity.
2. Metals are shiny, metallic luster.
3. Metals are ductile (can be stretched into thin wires).
4. Metals are malleable (can be pounded into sheets)
5. A chemical property of metal is its reaction with
water which results in corrosion.
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Physical Properties of Metals
solid at room temperature ~ except Hg ~ liquid
silvery to gray ~ except Au and Cu
metallic luster ~ shine
Chemical Properties of Metals
lose electrons easily
bonded by a metallic bond when bonding with each
other
Properties of Non-Metals
1. Non-metals are poor conductors of heat and lectricity.
2. Non-metals are not ductile or malleable.
3. Solids are brittle and break easily.
4. They are dull.
5. Many non-metals are gases
Physical Properties of Nonmetals
Solids, liquid, gases
Bromine is the only liquid non metal at room temperature
Come in all colors
No metallic luster
Poor conductors
Brittle
Odor pungent
Chemical Properties of Nonmetals
Tend to gain electrons
Non metals
Noble Gases
Bromine is poured into a beaker.
Bromine is very volatile; note the cloud
of ...
uncp.edu
Chlorine gas
easycalculation.co
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chemistry.about.co
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Properties of Metalloids
1. Metalloids (metal-like) have properties of both metals and non-metals.
2. They are solids that can be shiny or dull.
3. They conduct heat and electricity better than non-metals but not as
well
as metals.
5. Along
the stair case of the periodic table except: Al and
4. They are ductile and malleable.
At
Antimony
en.wikipedia.or
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1.The elements of- Aluminum, Iron, Oxygen, and Silicon
make up about 88% of the earth's solid surface.
2.Water on the surface and in the air as clouds and fog is
made up of hydrogen and oxygen.
3.The air is 99% nitrogen and oxygen.
4.Hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon make up 97% of a person.
5.Thus almost everything you see in this picture is made up
of just six elements.
http://www.ptable.com
/
Use this table to answer
the next two worksheets
Worksheet: What Are The Symbols For The Elements?
Symbols are signs that stand for something else. Here are some symbols that you may know: $ % @ & #.
What does each one stand for?
There is a symbol for each of the 106 chemical elements. There are 106 symbols because there are 106
elements. The symbols for the elements are the same all over the world. It makes no difference what country
you are in or what language you speak; the chemical symbols are the same.
I.
HOW DO THE ELEMENTS GET THEIR SYMBOLS?
1.
Often the first letter of the element’s name is the symbol for that element.
2.
The name of the element may begin with a letter that is already the symbol for another element. In
that case, it may be the first and second letters that are used or the first letter and another letter in the name
may be used to make the symbol.
3.
The first letter of the symbol is always capitalized. The second letter (if used) is always a lowercase
letter.
4.
A few elements are named after places or famous scientists.
II.
HOW ELEMENTS ARE NAMED
Study the Periodic Table of Elements that you were given. Do any of the names of the elements sound familiar?
They should. Some elements have ancient names of Latin and Greek origins; but many other were named for
famous scientists, countries, planets, etc. With a copy of the Periodic Table before you, answer the following
questions.
1.
There are several elements named for famous scientists. Can you find three?
__________________ , __________________ , and _____________________
2.
There are four elements named for the planets. Can you find all four of them?
__________________ , ___________________ , ___________________ , and ____________________
3.
There is one element named for a city in the United States and another for the state of that city. Can
you find the element named for the city and the element named for the state? (Hint: They are next to each other
on the table.)
___________________ and ___________________
4.
There are two elements named for large regions which include several countries. Do you know what
these elements are called? ________________ and ________________
5.
Element numbers 39, 65, 68, and 70 were all named for the same city, Ytterby, Sweden. What are th
names of these elements?
__________________ ,
___________________ , ___________________ , and ____________________
6.
The ancient name for France was Gaul, and the ancient name for Russia was Ruthernia. Can you
find the elements named for these ancient lands?
_____________________ and
_______________________
7.
Find the elements named in honor of France, America, Poland, and Germany.
__________________ , ___________________ , ___________________ , and ____________________
III.
ANCIENT NAMES FOR THE ELEMENTS
Plumbum
Natrium
Aurum
Stibium
Argentum
Hydrargyrum (Greek)
Kalium
Ferrum
This exercise will help you to remember the symbols of some of the elements which are not similar to their
modern names. The elements listed above were named in ancient times by the early Romans and Greeks.
Although we do not use these names, we have kept the symbols. How many of these ancient names can you
match to their modern names and symbols given below?
Modern Name
Symbol Ancient Name
8.
Antimony
Sb
___________________________
9.
Gold
Au
___________________________
10.
Iron
Fe
___________________________
11.
Silver
Ag
___________________________
12.
Sodium
Na
___________________________
13.
Potassium
K
___________________________
14.
Lead
Pb
___________________________
15.
Mercury
Hg
___________________________
IV.
COMPLETE SENTENCES
Complete the sentences with the words below.
capital
two
elements
symbol
small
16.
The short way of writing an element name is called its _________________________.
17.
The first letter of a chemical symbol is always a ___________________ letter.
18.
If a chemical symbol has two letters, the second letter is always a ______________ letter.
19.
A chemical symbol never has more than __________ letters.
20.
Chemists use symbols for the names of ______________________.
Day Five
Day Five
Day Five
Day Five
Day Five
Classification of Matter
2. Compounds - Two or more elements chemically combined
Elements are combined by chemical bonds = Force of attraction between elements
that lose, gain or share electrons
- Have a definite chemical formula
- Cannot be broken down by physical means
- Can be broken down by chemical means
*Compounds have different properties
than the elements that make them up.
Table salt has different properties than sodium, and chlorine
**Binary Compounds ~ Compounds made of 2 or more
elements
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Compounds
NaCl
H2O
C2H6O
C12H22O11
EX. Table Salt, sugar, water, ethanol
Compounds
2 Types of Binary Compounds we will be studying
Ionic Compounds
Covalent Compounds
chemistrysaanguyen.weebly.
com
chemistryassignment.com
Binary Ionic Compounds
Combination of a metal and nonmetal
Ionic Bond ~ Bond between metals and nonmetals
bonding is due to atoms that lose or gain electrons
The metal atoms lose electrons ~ they are called *cations
Positive ions ~ Positive charge ( have more protons than electrons)
The nonmetals atoms gain electrons ~ they are called anions
Negative ions ~ Negative charge ( have more electrons than protons
***The charge is neutral when the atoms combine = ionic compound
Characteristics of Ionic compounds
Some important characteristics of ionic compounds are as follows.
1. Ionic compounds are hard and rigid due to strong forces of attraction between the oppositely charged ions.
2. Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points, again due to strong forces of attraction between the
ions.
3. Ionic compounds dissolve easily in water.
4. Solid Ionic compounds do not conduct electricity because their constituent ions are fixed in their positions.
But, when melted or dissolved in water, they conduct electricity because the ions become free in a solution.
5. Ionic compounds are crystalline due to the orderly distribution of ions in them. This gives characteristic
geometrical shapes to the ionic compounds. Precipitates
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24&ndsp=13&ved=0CMABEK0DMCM
Ex:
NaCl : Sodium Chloride
Write the name of the first element (metal) poisitive ion (cation)
Write the root of the second element (nonmetal) negative ion (anion) add
ide
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Classify samples and sets of matter as a solution, colloid or suspension based on the application of characteristic
properties: particle size, “settling out” of one or more components, and interaction with light (Tyndall Effect).
Mixtures
Classification of Matter
Two or more substances that are not chemically
combined
with each other- they are mixed together.
Composition may vary
The “things” in a mixture keep their individual
properties.
May be separated by physical means
Distillation (liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is condensed again to a liquid)
Filtering
(separating contents)
Classification of Matter
Mixtures
Two
Homogeneous Mixture
http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&biw=1024&bih=587&t
bm=isch&tbnid=
Kinds
Heterogeneous Mixture
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=heterogeneous+mix
ture&u6&ty=70
Classification of Matter
Mixtures:
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous
1. Homogeneous Mixtures ~ Solutions
The components that make up the mixture are uniformly distributed throughout the
mixture.
Uniform in appearance
A true solution
Particles cannot be seen
EX. sugar water, coke, salt water, homogenized milk, blood
Homogeneous Mixtures ~ Solutions
sugar water
coke
homogenized milk
Blood Plasma Image: Blood
Plasma
medicalook.com
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Solutions and Solubility
Parts of a Solution
1. Solute
What is being dissloved
2. Solvent
What is doing the dissolving
chem4kids.co
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http://www.chem4kids.com/files/matter_solution.html
Solubility
The maximum amount of solute a solvent can dissolve at a certain temperature
Expressed as grams of solute in 100 grams of solvent (usually water)
g of solute
100 grams of water
Solutions and Solubility
1. Unsaturated Solutions
can dissolve more solute at a given temperature
contains less than the maximum amount of
solute
2. Saturated Solutions
Contains the maximum amount of solute at a given
temperature
cannot
dissolve any more
Supersaturated Solutions
Contains more solute at a certain temperature because it has been
heated
Effect of Temperature on
Solubility
Solubility
·depends on temperature
·of most solids increases as temperature increases
·of gases decreases as temperature increases
Solubility Curve
Solubility and
Henry’s law states:
·the solubilityPressure
of a gas in a liquid is directly related to the
pressure of that gas above the liquid
·at higher pressures, more gas molecules dissolve in
the liquid
Learning Check
At 40 °C, the solubility of KBr is 80 g/100 g of H2O.
Identify the following solutions as either (S) saturated or
(U) unsaturated. Explain.
A. 60 g KBr added to 100 g of water at 40 °C.
B. 200 g KBr added to 200 g of water at 40 °C.
C. 25 g KBr added to 50 g of water at 40 °C.
Increasing Solubility
1. grind solute increase surface area
2. increase temperature
3. stir solute
Concentration
Diluted
Types of Solutions
Solute Solvent Examples
Classification of Matter
2. Heterogeneous Mixtures ~ Suspensions
Not uniform in composition
- has physically distinct parts with different properties
- non-uniform throughout.
- individual components can be seen
- beef stew, tossed salad, chex mix, nuts and
bolts
EX. oil and vinegar, raw milk
Classification of Matter
2. Heterogeneous Mixtures ~ Suspensions
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Suspensions
Heterogeneous mixtures that separate into layers
salvagedinspirations.c
om
has to be shaken or stirred to get a uniformity in it.
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u
ethicurean.co
m
mettarefugedharmanuggets.blogspot.
com
EX. oil and vinegar, raw milk, muddy water, paint

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