socio-organizational issues and stakeholder requirements

O.Love, L.Magwood, O.Byrd, M.Brockman
Organizational Issues
They affect the acceptance and relevance of
new information and communication systems.
Why Stakeholders Must be Identified
Stakeholders must be identified so that information
can transfer and to power relationships that cut
across organizational structure.
Stakeholders also need to know the severity of the
situations and how it affects them and their
subordinates whether it be positive or negative.
A stake holder is anyone who is effected by the success
and failure of the system
Four types of stake holders:
-primary: actual users of the system
-secondary: receive output and provide input
-tertiary: no direct involvement but effected by the
success and failure
-facilitating: involved in development of the system
Helping you understand
So how socio-technology effect business
Understanding that socio-technical models affect
and are composed of both human and machine
The focus of this approach is to describe and
document the impact of the introduction of a
specific technology into a organization.
Socio-technology cont…
Methods vary but most attempt to capture certain
common elements
 The
problem being addressed
 The stakeholders affected
 Formal and informal work groups
 Changes
 Proposed technology
 External constraints.
CUSTOM Methodology
A Socio-technical methodology designed to be
practical to use in small organizations.
Based on User Skills and Task Match (USTM)
 Developed
to allow design teams to understand fully
document user requirements
Establishes stakeholder requirements
 All
stakeholders are considered, not jus the end-user
CUSTOM Methodology Cont…
Applied at the initial state of design
Product Opportunity – Emphasis is on
capturing requirements.
 Forms- Based methodology
Providing a set of questions to apply at
each of its stages
6 Key Stages
6 key stages to carry out in a CUSTOM analysis:
Describe context
Identify stakeholders
Identify work-groups
Identify task
Identify needs
OSTA stands for Open System Task Analysis
The OSTA has Eight stage model that focus on certain
OSTA Stage Model
The primary task identified in terms of users’ goals
task inputs to system identified
external environment into which the system will be
introduced is described, including physical, economic
and political aspects
transformation processes within the system are
described in terms of actions performed on or with
OSTA Stage Model Part 2
social system is analyzed, considering existing
internal and external work-groups and relationships
technical system is described in terms of
configuration and integration with other systems
performance satisfaction criteria are established,
indicating social and technical requirements of
new technical system is specified
Soft Systems Methodology
Was developed by Checkland
There are no assumption of technological solutions
but there is an emphasis on understanding situation
There are stages to Soft System Methodology
Soft Systems Methodology Stages
recognition of problem and initiation of analysis
detailed description of problem situation
generate root definitions of system
rich picture
conceptual model - identifying transformations
compare real world to conceptual model
identify necessary changes
determine actions to effect changes
Root definitions of system (CATWOE)
Clients: those who receive output or benefit from the system
Actors: those who perform activities within the system
Transformations: the changes that are affected by the
Weltanschauung: (from the German) or World View - how
the system is perceived in a particular root definition
Owner: those to whom the system belongs, to whom it is
answerable and who can authorize changes to it
Environment: the world in which the system operates and by
which it is influenced
Once Identified…
We then identify the transformations
and how it is achieved using the
conceptual model. Next we return to
our real world system. Finally we
decide if the changed are necessary
and beneficial to the system as a
Participatory Design
Participatory design is a philosophy that encompasses
the whole design cycle
Design in the workplace, design team
 Users actively collaborate
 Actively participate
Main Characteristics
 Improve the work environment
 Collaboration
 Interactive approach
Participatory Design Cont…
Methods to help convey information between the user
and designer
 Brainstorming All
participants are involved
 Informal
 Unstructured
 “On-the-fly” ideas
 Recorded
 No judgment
Participatory Design Cont…
Storyboarding- can be used as a means of
describing the user’s day-to-day activities as
well as the potential designs and the impact
they will have.
Participatory design continued…
Workshops- fill missing knowledge, getting ideas
from both users and designers. Allowing everyone
to get a more focused view on the design.
Pencil and paper exercises- gives everyone a
change to walk-through the system using mock
Just a little example
Is based on very detailed recording of the
interactions between people and between people
and their environment.
Special focus on social relationships
Ethnographic tradition
Ethnography is based on very detailed recording of
the interactions between people and their
environments. It has a special focus on social
relationships and how they affect the nature of
work. The ethnographer does not enter actively into
the situation, and does not see things from a
particular person’s point of view

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