The Tianshan Radio Experiment for Neutrino Detection Olivier Martineau-Huynh NAOC G&C lunch talk May 28, 2014 Milky Way over 21CM array (Gu Junhua) Physics with UHE cosmic neutrinos • UHE neutrinos as a tool to study violent phenomena in the Universe – One example: young extragalactic pulsars (Ke Fang et al., arXiv:1311.2044) • UHE heavy nuclei emmited (= UHECRs) • Interaction with supernova ejecta • p+ l + nl (= UHE neutrinos) Physics with UHE cosmic neutrinos • GZK neutrinos p+gCMB D+ p+ + n. p+ l + n l. Great tool to study UHECRs. GZK suppression? Ahlers et al., arxiv:1208.4181 Physics with UHE cosmic neutrinos • Lots of physics with neutrinos above 1016eV – Test of pulsars, AGN, GRBs, – Test of UHECRs propagation – Probe distant Universe –… • Downside: neutrino detection challenge + low flux @ UHE… Need for cheap / scalable /easily maintainable detector. Neutrino detection • Elusive particle requires dense & large target: – Ice: detection of shower initiated by n NC interaction – Ground ARIANA project 1400m ICECUBE 1000m Birth of neutrino astronomy • IceCube 2012&2013 – Milestone in astronomy&astrophysics but: – Angular reconstruction for shower events ? – ~1 event/year above 250TeV. Neutrino detection Target = Earth Extensive air shower nt t Radio detection Eth ~1017 eV • Earth + mountains as target for neutrino interaction (AUGER-type) • Radio detection of subsequent EAS (good at large zenith angles) EAS radiodetection: principle • Bgeo Acceleration of relativistic charged particles in the Earth magnetic field (Kahn & Lerche, 1965): geosynchrotron emission Bgeo F = qvBgeo • Coherent effect detectable radio emission (~100ns & 10s µV/m) + - Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection The GRAND project • 100’000 antennas over 60’000km² would make the best UHE neutrino observatory. (sensitivity evaluation TBC by full MC) • Major challenge: n identification over background Esh=1018eV q=90° 472 antennas triggered Radio background TREND antenna Reconstrcuted source position TREND-50 antennas radio array: - 1.5km² - 220 days data subset - 1.2 1010 triggers recorded - 1.4 109 coincidences ~0.2Hz event rate over TREND-50 array (physical origin) Expected EAS trigger rate: ~100 events/day for E>1017 eV Background rejection is a key issue for EAS radiodetection. Background sources: HV lines, radio emiters, train, cars, planes, thunderstorms… Autonomous EAS radio-detection with the TREND-50 setup • 50 antennas deployed in summer-automn 2010, total surface ~1.5km². • Stable operation since January 2011. • Goal: establish possibility for autonomous radio detection of EAS. TREND-15 (2010) TREND-50 ~1.5 km² Background rejection EAS signal - ~ Plane wavefront. - Fast drop of amplitude when moving away from shower axis. - Random time and direction Shower axis Background: Close source: - Spherical wavefront - Fast drop of amplitude when moving away from source. Distant source: - ~ Plane wavefront - ~ Constant amplitude Both: correlated in time & direction. Radio cone EAS signal Background TREND-50 EAS candidates 2011-2012 data (Antennas oriented EW): 396 candidates in 320 live days. EAS simulation Proton showers @ 1017eV (half sky) 90° 90° 60° 60° 30° 30° West 90° West 90° South 90° South 90° TREND-50 EAS candidates Data (norm) Simu (norm) Data (norm) Simu (norm) • Good match between data & EAS simulation: TREND-50 was able to identify EAS with limited background contamination. • Still a preliminary result: • Simulation statistics to be increased. • Analysis cuts to be applied to simulated data. • If they remain, discepencies to be understood (e.g. large q values) n - induced shower radiodetection • Identification of standard EAS OK statistically (TREND-50). • Neutrino detection: – Very bad Signal/Noise ratio: TREND-50 ID method not reliable enough. – Looking for horizontal showers: amplitude pattern at ground not as specific as for standard ones Shower axis Shower axis Standard EAS signal: focused ground patern & rapid drop of amplitude n-induced (~horizontal) shower: no significant variation of amplitude along shower axis (but OK in lateral direction) Polarization measurment • EAS radio emission is polarized: at first order F = qv.Bgeo Linear polarity, with P Bgeo & P shower direction Shower core (q=66°, j = 354°) b ~89° on all antennas h ~7° on all antennas Trigerred antennas z b h y P x GRAND-proto • • Polarization measurment = powerfull identification tool for EAS? Test setup: «GRAND-proto» – 35 3-polar antennas for a complete polar measurment (h = atan(Vy/Vx) & b = atan(Vz/Vplan). – 6 antennas in test at present. – 21 scintillators for EAS offline validation (IHEP) – Full setup in summer 2015. Conclusion • Neutrinos are a powerfull tool for astrophysics (violent phenomena multi-messenger approach) • Giant radio arrays could be the most adequate instrument for their detection. • Main challenge: background rejection • TREND-50 results (very) encouraging, GRANDproto promising!