Author’s Craft 7-1.5 Tone Tone is the author’s attitude toward a subject. The tone of a written work may be one of anger, sarcasm, humor, sadness, or excitement. “Kay tore open the envelope and quickly scanned the letter. Congratulations! The word leapt off the page as if it were written in bright lights.” The words tore open, quickly, leapt off, and bright lights create a tone of excitement. Imagery Imagery is the use of descriptive words that appeal to the five senses (sight, smell, hearing, touch, and taste) and create a picture in the reader’s mind. “His silk shirt, soaked in perspiration, clung to his body like a wet napkin.” Flashback Flashback is when the present action in a story is paused to describe an earlier event. For example, a character named Leah refuses to help an old friend who comes knocking at her door. In a flashback, Leah relives a night long ago when this friend betrayed her. Foreshadowing Foreshadowing is a clue about what is going to happen in a story. For example, on his way to explore a deserted gold mine, Ben reads a magazine article about a ghost said to haunt the mine. Later in the story, Ben finds himself face-to-face with the ghost. Symbolism Symbolism is the use of a concrete object to represent an abstract idea. Authors may use a dove as a symbol for peace; clouds or rain as a symbol of sadness; a seedling as a symbol for hope. Verbal Irony Verbal Irony is the use of language that expresses the opposite of what a character or narrator really means. For example: “There is nothing like getting eaten up by mosquitoes to make a camping trip worthwhile.” Situational Irony Situational Irony is when the expected result of a situation is different from the actual result. For example, a boy who was terrible in science and math grows up to become an astronaut. Dramatic Irony Dramatic Irony is when the audience has information that a character does not, and this lack of knowledge affects the character’s actions. For example, a character crosses a room to escape through an open door at the far end, but the audience knows there is a trapdoor in the middle of the floor.