Hydraulic Fracture Mining in Manitoba

Report
MB Eco-Network Water Caucus
April 26, 2012
Fracking Topics
The Fracking Process
 Materials
 Fracking Chemicals
 Water issues
○ Water use
○ Contaminated water storage
○ Ground water contamination
Fracking in MB
 Bakken Formation
 Current Legal Status
Fracking Topics (cont.)
Other Jurisdictions
 British Columbia
 Quebec
 Maritimes
 Ontario
Opportunities/ Challenges in Opposing
Fracking in Manitoba
Q & A / Discussion on Campaign Strategies
Intro Video

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JOOh
oLzDGgE
Water and Chemical Use

Each fracture well requires 1-8 million gallons of
water in total

Each frack requires 40,000 gallons of chemicals
(average number of fracks per well is 15-20)
Fracking Solution
94.5 %
5.25 %
0.25 %
Water
Sand (Propping agent)
Chemical Additives
Chemical Functions
Friction Reducer - allows higher flow rate at reduced
pressure
Fracking Fluids - acid to break down surrounding rock
Biocides - prevents microorganism growth and biofouling
Stabilizers - prevents corrosion of metal pipes
Product
Function
Chemical Name
Chemical Purpose
Acid
Hydrochloric Acid
Helps dissolve minerals and initiate cracks in the rock
Biocide
Glutaraldehyde
Ammonium Chloride
Quaternary Ammonium
Chloride
Tetrakis HydroxymethylPhosphoium Sulphate
Breaker
Eliminates bacteria in the water that
produces corrosive by-products
Ammonium Persulphate
Magnesium Peroxide
Allows a delayed break down of the gel
Magnesiom Oxide
Calcium Chloride
Product Stabilizer
Sodium Chloride
Clay Stabilizer Choline Chloride
Tetramethyl ammonium
chloride
Prevents clays from swelling or shifting
Product Function
Chemical Name
Corrosion Inhibitor Isopropanol
Methanol
Formic Acid
Chemical Purpose
Product Stabilizer and/or winterizing
agent
Prevents the corrosion of the pipe
Acetaldehyde
Crosslinker
Petroleum Distillate
Hydrotreated Light
Petroleum Distillate
Carrier fluid for borate or zirconate
crosslinker
Potassium Metaborate
Triethanolamine
Zirconate
Sodium Tertaborate
Boric Acid
Maintains fluid viscosity as temperature
increases
Zirconium Complex
Borate Salts
Ethylene Glycol
Methanol
Product Stabilizer and/or winterizing
agent
Product Function Chemical Name
Chemical Purpose
Friction Reducer Polycrylamide
"Slicks" the water to minimize friction
Petroleum Distillate
Gelling Agent
Guar Gum
Polysaccharide Blend
Petroleum Distillate
Hydrotreated Light
Petroleum Distillate
Iron Control
Carrier fluid for polyacrylamide friction reducer
Thickens the water in order to suspend the
sand
Carrier fluid for guar gum in liquid gels
Citric Acid
Acetic Acid
Prevents precipitation of metal oxides
Thioglcolic Acid
Sodium Erythorbate
Non-Emulsifier
Scale Inhibitor
Lauryl Sulphate
Copolymer of Acrylamide
and Sodium Acrflate
Sodium Polycarboxylate
Used to prevent the formation of emulsions in the
fracture fluid
Prevents scale deposit in the pipe
Product
Function
Chemical Name
Chemical Purpose
pH Adjusting
Agent
Sodium Hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide
Acetic Acid
Adjusts the pH of fluid to maintain the
effectiveness of other components,
such as crosslinkers
Sodium Carbonate
Potassium Carbonate
Sufactant
Lauryl Sulphate
Used to increase the viscosity of the fracture fluid
Naphthalene
Carrier Fluid for the active surfactant ingredients
Ethanol
Methanol
Isopropyl Alcohol
2-Butoxyethanol
Product Stabilizers and/or winterizing agents
Contamination risks

Transport of hazardous chemicals to the mine
site

Recovered fracture water or “produced water”
sits in nearby tailings ponds.
 These tailing ponds allow volatile organic compounds
and hazardous waste particles into the air
 0nly 30-50% of the water is recyclable - the rest is
disposed of onsite (buried in mine shaft) when well is
dry.
Contamination Risks

The fracking fluid may contaminate the
water supply through a leak in the well line
or through leeching into the water table via
the fractures the process creates

Naturally-occurring methane gas and other
toxic chemicals may leech into the water
table
 Methane gas concentration is 17 times higher in
drinking-water wells near fracking sites
Bakken Formation
Bakken Formation Potential
Reserves
3.65 billion barrels of crude oil
2.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas
150 million barrels of gas liquids
Hydraulic Fracture Mining in Manitoba

Companies are not required to stipulate mining
method - just what is extracted (ie. gas or oil), so
no way to determine where exactly fracking is
occurring
Number of MB oil wells in 2003 – 1,400
Number of MB oil wells in 2009 – 3,000

It is estimated that 300-500 wells will be drilled in
MB in 2012

Many of these may be fracking sites
Hydraulic Fracture Mining
In Manitoba

There is no special legal status or
requirements for hydraulic fracture mines in
MB

Hydraulic fracking would come under MB
Oil and Gas Act (1993) and Drilling and
Production Regulation (1994)
 both of which were designed for traditional oil
and gas extraction and written before large
scale hydraulic fracking was used in Canada
(prior to exploitation of the Bakken reserve)
Hydraulic Fracture Mining
In Manitoba

Thus, the legal framework in MB
ignores:
 The likelihood of fracking chemicals entering
the water table; and
 The possibility of natural gas leeching into
the water supply once disturbed by fracking
Other Jurisdictions: BC

British Columbia has a large scale
hydraulic fracture mining industry which
has faced heavy opposition

Recently passed legislation requires
companies to disclose the chemicals
they use in the fracking process and this
is published online at fracfocus.ca
Other Jurisdictions: BC
Legislation weak points

Disclosure occurs 30 days after well has been
closed
 so really just for legal recourse if your water or land
has already been contaminated

Companies can still restrict chemical
publication if said chemical is a proprietary
trade secret
 there is just additional paperwork

Not sure of the penalties for non-compliance as
it is a regulatory framework that works with
industry
Other Jurisdictions: Quebec

Recently extended and expanded on
previous fracking moratorium until study
results due in 2013 are released

Currently, fracking no longer permitted
even for research purposes
Other Jurisdictions: Maritimes
Nova Scotia

Recently passed two year fracking
moratorium until the process can be further
studied
New Brunswick
Liberal Opposition has been calling for
moratorium in legislature
 Moncton City Council has refused to sell
water to fracking companies

Other Jurisdictions: Ontario

Small municipal regions around the
Great Lakes have successfully opposed
and stopped fracking deals
Challenges in Manitoba

We do not have a lot of information as to where
hydraulic fracturing is occurring and how large
the industry is at the present

Because MB’s oil and gas industry is small not
many politicians are informed about the
dangers

The NDP government may not want to spend
political capital on an issue that affects few
people and in a rural area that is a traditional
Tory stronghold
Challenges in Manitoba

North Dakota is experiencing a huge
industry boom as it jumps into hydraulic
fracking with both feet
Opportunities in Manitoba

Several provinces have recognized the dangers
posed by hydraulic fracking and have
strengthened their regulation or placed
moratoriums on it

Government is currently rewriting the new
Groundwater and Well Water Act
Current mining legislation is outdated and needs
to be refreshed to reflect growing industry

 Opportunity for shaping these reforms

Less pressure on politicians to keep natural gas
prices low
Sources/ Links
http://manitobawildlands.org/gov_rc33.htm -good starting site
http://www.watershedsentinel.ca/content/fracking-natural-gas-affects-water-quality
http://www.policyalternatives.ca/sites/default/files/uploads/publications/BC%20Office/2011/11/CCPA-BC_Fracking_Up.pdf
http://www.cbc.ca/fp/story/2011/06/30/5031205.html - business fallout over Quebec’s fracking moratorium
http://rabble.ca/news/2010/07/no-fracking-way-ban-hydraulic-fracturing-canada
http://www.canada.com/life/Nova+Scotia+issues+year+moratorium+fracking/6481080/story.html
http://www.montrealgazette.com/technology/Most+Canadians+want+moratorium+fracking+poll/6106545/story.html
http://www.winnipegsun.com/2012/02/06/tobans-dont-support-fracking-poll
http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/shale-gas-seen-as-possible-new-resource-here-137812343.html
http://www.propublica.org/special/hydraulic-fracturing-national
http://www.gaslandthemovie.com/whats-fracking
http://www.halliburton.com/public/projects/pubsdata/hydraulic_fracturing/fracturing_101.html
http://www.hydraulicfracturing.com/Water-Usage/Pages/Information.aspx
http://thetyee.ca/Opinion/2011/04/20/FrackingToxins/
www.fracfocus.ca
http://www.mining.com/2012/02/03/fracking-explained-negatively/

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