THE MÉTIS FLEE WESTWARD The Prairies, 1870-1896 After the Red River Rebellion… • The future looked bright for the Métis – However, the promise soon dimmed • Many Métis left their original territory near the Red River – Scattered across the Prairies • Throughout the 1870’s the Métis continued to feel threatened by many forces Transition not smooth… • MacDonald ordered troops into area to “keep the peace” – However, troops didn’t act as peace agents – Métis brutalized • Many died b/c of beatings • Soldiers not punished Land ownership • Not straight forward • All settlers in MB required to have scrip – Gain title to the land – Scrip: piece of paper similar to money – 2 kinds issued to Métis • Money scrip: value of $160 ($1 per acre of land) – Convertible to cash (up to $160) • Land scrip: entitled the person to exchange scrip for a homesteaders ¼ section of land grant Problems… • Land speculators arrived in Red River Valley • Bought up almost all the scrip from those that held it – Most Métis didn’t understand value of scrip • Traditional econ. Didn’t involve money or deeds • Speculators used scrip as collateral for bank loans – More investment capital • Government of MB……….(will be revealed later)….. Results… • Early 1870’s: many Métis left MB • Gravitated to the Northwest • Tried to recreate the culture they enjoyed in Red River before 1869 • Did the Red River Rebellion improve the Métis situation at all? Scrip funtivity! • Métis with scrip – 1 scrip, worth $160 (160 acres of land) • Land speculator with “money” – You only have $350 to spend on scrip • Neither side can pool resources • No declarations of war! Land scrip: what did the MB government do? • Government of Manitoba often threatened Métis with imprisonment if they didn’t turn over scrip to the land speculators Manitoba Act • • • • Passed in 1870 Welcome by Métis Métis made up majority of people in the province Act made French and English official languages of MB • 2 education systems: Protestant and Roman Catholic • 1.4 million acres of land reserved for Métis Manitoba Act group activity • As a group, skim through the Manitoba Act (READ SECTIONS 31 AND 32) – Make notes about promises made to Métis in the act • Individually, read the article “Métis celebrate historic Supreme Court land ruling” – Discuss the article as a group • How did the Canadian government go back on its promises? • What impact did this have on the Métis? • How have things now changed for the Métis?