Why TOK?
0 Intellectual Journey
0 Develop our skills as reflective thinkers
0 Richer understanding of the world
TOK Terminology-1
0 Justified:
shown to be fair, right or reasonable
0 True:
logically consistent, honest, correct or accurate
0 Belief:
a feeling that what you think is true
Knowledge Claims
0 «the universe is 13.77 billion years old»
0 Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the
0 «knowledge can be based on faith and reason»
0 «I know Burma is now called Myanmar» - claim of
personal certainty
0 «I believe Burma is now called Myanmar» - recognises
a personal uncertainty
0 I know = I am claiming to be certain about it.
0 Difficulty of certainty
0 Insufficient evidence
Types of Knowledge
0 What is knowledge?
0 2 types:
0 Priori: before experience
0 Posteriori: after experience
0 First hand: we gain for ourselves
0 Second hand: we acquire from other sources
Types of Knowledge
0 3 types:
0 Practical knowledge: how to do things, like how to swim,
play a violin or read a book
0 Knowledge by acquanintance: first hand. Knowing
ourselves, people we have met, places we’ve been to, taste of
things etc.
0 Factual knowledge: about events that have actually occured
or things hat have been verified as true (collection of KCs
about the world in all AOK)
0 True by definition: «my parents are my mother and father.»
(fact of the English)
0 No guarantee that a truth by definition entails existence
0 e.g. unicorns
TOK Terminology-2
0 AOK:
branches of knowledge that have
0 A distinct nature and different methods of gaining
0 Maths, NS, HS, Arts, Ethics, religious knowledge systems
and indigenous knowledge systems
0 Valid:
well-grounded or justified
0 KQ:
an open question that explores issues of knowing
0 Discussion on KCs
0 Page 5
Knowledge Questions
0 Explicitly about what knowledge is
0 How we know what we claim to know
0 e.g. To what extent might one WOK be more reliable
than another?
0 To gain a better and deeper understanding of what we
hold as true and why
0 We may lose some of our certainties
TOK Terminology-3
0 Ways of knowing:
how we know what we know. Language, sense perception,
emotion, reason, imagination, faith, intuition and memory
0 Presentation task: Consider how you might develop the
following KQ for a presentation. What RLS might your
developed question apply to?
0 To what extent does our willingness to rely on eyewitness
accounts depend on our emotional responses?
0 Extended writing task: write 500 word on one of the
following questions;
0 1. how important is it that we are certain about what we claim
as knowledge?
0 2. to what extent might it be more important for knowledge to
be useful rather than accurate?
Justification and Evidence
0 «Is the KC supported by substantial evidence and/or
valid reasoning?»
0 Justification often relies on evidence
0 Neither coincidence nor correlation implies causation
0 When we have enough evidence to be able to claim sth
as true, we may view this as proof of its truth.
TOK Terminology-4
0 Valid reason:
a reason that is well-founded and convincing; a valid argument is an argument that follows
the rules of logic
0 Evidence:
information that is interpreted to support a particular argument
0 Proof:
enough evidence to claim something as true
0 Anectodal evidence:
evidence that comes from personal stories
0 Coincidence:
when two or more events happen at the same time independently of each other
0 Correlation:
when there is a relationship between two or more events, but t is not necessarily a causal
0 Causation:
when one event leand to another event, for example kicking a football causes the ball to
TOK Terminology-5
0 Shared knowledge:
what we know as part of a group or community; for example, what
we learn through the curriculum at school is a set of skills and
information agreed on by educators, politicians and other as
important knowledge for our society.
0 Distributed knowledge:
the combined knowledge of all the individuals in an organisation,
society, nation or the world
0 Personal knowledge:
the knowledge we have through our own experiences and prsonal
involvement; this can include knowledge by acquaintance, practical
knowledge and factual knowledge
0 Tacit:
understood or implied without being explicitly stated
0 Presentation task: choose one of the following KQs below. Consider
how you might develop the following KQ for a presentation. Select
some RL examples that you might use as evidence to support and to
counter your argument.
0 To what extent do we evaluate evidence before making a judgement, and to what
extent do we look for evidence to support our judgements?
0 How does the importanca of justifiying our beliefs differ across different AOK?
0 Extended writing task: write 500 word on one of the following
0 1. to what extent are we persuaded by the quantity of evidence rather than the
quality of evidence?
0 2. how can we justify beliefs that do not seem to agree with available evidence?
0 3. to what extent can we justify beliefs that rest on very flimsy or anectodal
evidence? And why might we want to hold or justify such beliefs?
WOK in shared and personal
0 Explore
0 Language
0 Emotion
0 Sense perception
0 Reason
0 Languages evolve in different societies and cultures
0 Can only function as a means of communication as far
as it is shared
0 Meaning must be shared so that it can be understood
0 Without shared knowledge, there could be no
0 How we interpret and hear language is also deeply
0 Intensely personal way of knowing
0 Shape our thoughts and behaviours
0 Influence our interpretation of the world
0 Positive and negative words may affect the way we
respond to circumstances
0 May ultimately determine how we interpet language
and sense peception
0 How we respond to issues of faith and how we apply
our reason
0 Emotive language
0 Help us to understand the world
0 As good as our sensory apparatus and our brains’
interpretation of the data it receives
0 Music, book, conversations, foods, aromas and so on.
0 Perceptions may still have in common
0 Confirm with others
0 «Did you see that?», «can you hear the noise?», «does
this milk smell off to you?»
0 Believe if shared by the others
0 Socially accepted definitions of what constitutes
reason and what does not.
0 We use reason to construct an argument or justify a
belief, to assess our intuition and imagination
0 Valid reasoning
0 Formal logic (deductive reasoning) can never lead to
certaity except in so far as the premises it starts with
are certain
0 Inductive reasoning is inherently fallible
TOK Terminology-6
0 Argument:
ability to persuade using reason and evidence
0 Premise:
a proposition assumed to be truei on which an argument
is based
0 Presentation task: Presentation task: Consider how
you might develop the following KQ for a presentation.
What RLS might your developed question apply to?
0 How do shared and personal knowledge complement each
0 Extended writing task: write 500 word on one of the
following questions;
0 1. how do we decide which knowledge claims to trust when
our personal knowledge is at odds with knowledge that is
widely shared?
0 2. when, if ever, should society allow personal knowledge
claims to change shared knowledge?
Why Assignments
0 To prepare yourself for
0 Presentation (IA)
0 Essay
0 To let me find out your misconceptions
0 To let me give you feedback for your improvement

similar documents