Chapter 3 Physical Evidence A

Report
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Evidence can be collected due to its
relationship to a
A. Suspect
B. Victim
C. Witness
D. All of the above
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A man wanted for a string of identity thefts
recently stole credit card information from
customers at a popular restaurant in a busy
downtown section of New York City. He was
seen eating dinner and speaking with other
patrons by two witnesses. He left the
restaurant at approximately 10 PM by a
parking valet.
List different pieces of evidence you would
attempt to collect from the scenario.

Possibly the suspect’s saliva, DNA

Suspect’s fingerprints

Suspect’s description/physical characteristics

Type of automobile driven by suspect

Security camera/traffic camera information

Testimony of witnesses

Personal information of suspect – type of work,
address – from conversation within restaurant

Can you identify this individual?

How is Forensics connected to this individual?
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Paul Walker was killed in an automobile crash
on Saturday Nov 30.
The car he was driving in was involved in a
high speed crash and an explosion followed.
Both he and the driver of the car, Roger Rodus,
were incinerated as a result of the crash.
How will the bodies be identified?
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Big Question: How does forensics assist in the
collection and examination of evidence?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Start of TRIMESTER 2

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3. Jack the Ripper Part VII
4. Finish CSI: Skeleton on the Bus Video

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TRIMESTER 1 GRADES
Answer Question Set
5. Begin Chapter 3 Physical Evidence
6. Review and Homework
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Contamination and destruction of evidence
can occur due to
A. the mishandling of a body by law
enforcement personnel
B. leaving a body exposed to environmental
conditions
C. failure to perform a thorough autopsy
D. improper labeling of evidence bags
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A body has been discovered by police. A witness
has stepped forward to report an incident of
murder. The witness lives next door to the
accused individual. She recalls seeing the victim
enter the home of the accused. The incident
involved a violent physical attack on a relative of
the accused man. The local police department has
dispatched officers to the scene of the crime.
As an evidence collection specialist, you have
been called to the alleged crime scene.
What types of evidence would you be looking for?
Make associations to the victim and the type of
crime committed.

Look for anything out of the ordinary at the
crime scene.
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Search for a murder weapon.
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Match the wounds on the victim to a possible
weapon.
Search for blood spatter and other types of
biological evidence.

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A newly cleaned carpet or missing furniture.
Check the walls, floors, and ceiling.
Look for hair and fiber samples on the
furnishings of the home.
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Match samples found to the victim’s clothing.
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Big Question: How does forensics assist in the
collection and examination of evidence?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Jack the Ripper Part VII
3. Finish CSI: Skeleton on the Bus Video

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
Answer Question Set
4. Begin Chapter 3 Physical Evidence
5. Review and Homework

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ik81U330
jiw
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The statute of limitations in New Jersey
involving violent crimes is dependent upon
which of the following…
A. the age of the victim
B. the specific crime a suspect has been charged
with
C. the type of evidence available
D. the arrest record of the suspect


Diary of Jack the Ripper Part VIII
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EVakr9l0
QDc
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
Big Question: How does forensics assist in the
collection and examination of evidence?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Jack the Ripper Part VIII
3. Begin Chapter 3 Physical Evidence
4. Review and Homework
CHAPTER 3


Laws that set time limits on how long you have
to file a "civil" lawsuit, like a personal injury
lawsuit, or how long the state has to prosecute
someone for committing a crime.
Time limits usually depend on the legal claim
or crime involved in the case.

Vary from state to state

CIVIL
Assault/Battery
2 YEARS
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False Imprisonment
2 YEARS
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Personal Injury
2 Years
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CRIMINAL
Assault
1 or 5 Years
Rape
NO TIME LIMIT
Manslaughter/
Murder
NO TIME LIMIT
Kidnapping
5 years

Time starts to run on the day after the offense is
committed, except that when the prosecution is
supported by physical evidence that identifies
the actor by means of DNA testing or
fingerprint analysis.
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Time does not start to run until the State is in
possession of both the physical evidence and the
DNA or fingerprint evidence necessary to establish
the identification of the actor by means of
comparison to the physical evidence.
What does this statement mean?
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Every crime scene needs to be treated on an
individual basis.
Certain types of evidence are likely to yield
significant results in ascertaining the nature and
circumstances of a crime.
Responsibility of the investigator to be familiar
with
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Recognition, collection, and analysis of items
Laboratory procedures and capabilities
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Valuable evidence can sometimes be overlooked at
a crime scene.
Collected evidence can also be left on an evidence
room shelf having never been fully examined or
processed.
Regulations apply to the admissibility of evidence
after an established period of time from the
original date of a reported crime.
Generally begins at time/date a crime has been reported
 Official police inquiry/investigation

Which of the following is not the responsibility of an investigator when collecting evidence?
A. Collection of evidence from a crime scene
B. Interpretation of criminal law as related to a trial
C. Knowledge of analytical techniques for the purpose of processing evidence
D. Limitations of forensics special services

Investigator must be able to
Make logical decisions
 Process the uncommon
and unexpected
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Qualified evidence collectors must also be able to
make innovative and on-the-spot decisions at the
crime scene.
Memorizing a standardized set of procedures is not
enough
 Useful to the investigation
 Always within the clear definitions of the law

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
Begin Casey Anthony Investigative CASE
STUDY
Read Casey Anthony Trial Summary.
Highlight points of interest about the case.

FOCUS ON
 the Key pieces of evidence
 Arguments of prosecution and defense
When you have finished the article, write down the
most important event you have read about that has
affected the outcome of the trial?
This is your opinion but JUSTIFY your answer.
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BIG Question: How does a forensic scientist
collect and examine evidence for use in a
criminal investigation?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Jack the Ripper Writing Response
3. Casey Anthony Case Study
4. Physical Evidence Lab Investigation
5. EXIT PASS and Homework
 Physical Evidence Lab Packet and
Questions
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The evidence collection specialist must
always apply scientific principles when
A. processing evidence
B. collecting evidence
C. examining evidence
D. All of the above
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Evidence has been found at a crime scene being
worked by two different police departments. The
first department on scene collects a number of
pieces of evidence. One sample of evidence
cannot be processed by the crime lab of the first
department. The second collection unit suggests
that they take the piece of evidence from the
crime scene with them to deliver it to the lab that
can process it. The first team gives the evidence to
the second team.
Was this the correct choice made by the first
team? Justify your answer.
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No. The first team had already collected the
evidence.
The proper procedures require that the
evidence first be properly bagged or sealed,
examined, processed through their police
agency, and catalogued.
The evidence can then be arranged for transfer
to the second team’s crime lab for analysis.
Chain of custody must be followed and any
evidence that changes hands must be
documented.
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BIG Question: How does a forensic scientist
collect and examine evidence for use in a
criminal investigation?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Hand in Homework




JtR VIII Questions and Written Response
3. Casey Anthony Case Study
4. Chapter 3 Notes
5. Complete Physical Evidence Lab
Investigation
 Physical Evidence Lab Packet and
Questions
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A piece of evidence presented by the
prosecution that cannot be connected to a
suspect on trial would most likely be
A. allowed to remain as evidence
B. dismissed as irrelevant evidence
C. admissible if the prosecution can make a
connection within a designated time frame
D. admissible if the defense cannot prove it
is irrelevant to the suspect or case.


Biological evidence was collected from a crime
scene. It places the suspect at the scene of the
crime where a murder had taken place. Under
cross examination, the forensic specialist who had
collected the sample admits that he did not use
new sterile instruments to collect the evidence.
The crime lab technician testifies under oath that
the results of analytical testing of the evidence is
100% accurate.
Predict the outcome of the trial. Justify your
answer.
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The evidence will be removed from the trial as per
a judge’s ruling.
The jury will be instructed to disregard this
evidence.
This also opens the door for the defense to
question other pieces of evidence in the trial and
may place doubt in the minds of the jurors as to
the scientific credibility of the prosecution’s case.
There is a strong possibility that the suspect
would be found not guilty of the most serious
charges.



BIG Question: How does a forensic scientist
collect and examine evidence for use in a
criminal investigation?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Hand in Homework




JtR VIII Questions and Written Response
3. Casey Anthony Case Study
4. Chapter 3 Notes
5. Complete Physical Evidence Lab
Investigation
 Physical Evidence Lab Packet and
Questions


Family’s home computer — with Casey
Anthony’s password — used to Google search
for “fool-proof suffication” on June 16, 2008.
Google automatically corrected the misspelled
“suffication” and linked pages describing ways
to die by poisoning and suffocation.
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Any objects that can
establish a crime has
been committed.
Evidence can
provide a link
between a crime, the
victim, and the
perpetrator.
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Blood, semen, and saliva – can be dried or in a
liquid state, human or animal.

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Documents – any handwriting or typewriting
submitted to confirm the authenticity or source

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Subjected to biochemical and serological analysis to
determine identity and possible origin
Paper, ink, processed
Drugs – any substance seized in violation of
laws regulating the sale, distribution,
manufacture, and use of drugs
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Laws regulate the
A. Personal use of drugs
B. Distribution of drugs
C. Sale of Drugs
D. prescribing of drugs through medical
professionals


http://abcnews.go.com/US/casey_anthony_trial/
casey-anthony-trial-defense-claims-cayleeanthony-drowned/story?id=13674375
http://abcnews.go.com/US/casey_anthony_trial/
casey-anthony-trial-defense-claims-cayleeanthony-drowned/story?id=13674375
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Work in your Crime Teams.
Each team will be assigned to the prosecution
or defense.
You will formulate a brief argument regarding
the use of the computer and the searches if it
was presented in court.
Prosecutors  Argue why it would convict
Defenders  Be prepared for crossexamination and convince jury
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
BIG Question: How does a forensic scientist
collect and examine evidence for use in a
criminal investigation?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Hand in Homework – Case Responses
3. Casey Anthony Case Study
4. Chapter 3 Notes
5. Review and HOMEWORK
HAPPY HOLIDAYS!!!
Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!!!

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
A piece of evidence presented by the
prosecution that cannot be connected to a
suspect on trial would most likely be
A. allowed to remain as evidence
B. dismissed as irrelevant evidence
C. admissible if the prosecution can make a
connection within a designated time frame
D. admissible if the defense cannot prove it
is irrelevant to the suspect or case.


Biological evidence was collected from a crime
scene. It places the suspect at the scene of the
crime where a murder had taken place. Under
cross examination, the forensic specialist who had
collected the sample admits that he did not use
new sterile instruments to collect the evidence.
The crime lab technician testifies under oath that
the results of analytical testing of the evidence is
100% accurate.
Predict the outcome of the trial. Justify your
answer.




The evidence will be removed from the trial as per
a judge’s ruling.
The jury will be instructed to disregard this
evidence.
This also opens the door for the defense to
question other pieces of evidence in the trial and
may place doubt in the minds of the jurors as to
the scientific credibility of the prosecution’s case.
There is a strong possibility that the suspect
would be found not guilty of the most serious
charges.






BIG Question: How does a forensic scientist
collect and examine evidence for use in a
criminal investigation?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Hand in Homework – Case Responses and
Labs
3. Casey Anthony Case Study
4. Chapter 3 Notes
5. Review and HOMEWORK



Anthony’s daughter Caylee was last seen on June 16,
2008 before her body was found on Dec. 11, 2008. A
jury acquitted Casey Anthony of murder on July 5,
2011.
Trial prosecutor Jeff Ashton said proof of the web
search could have been a crucial weapon. The defense
had claimed Caylee accidentally drowned and Casey
Anthony’s dad George Anthony ditched the body.
Defense attorney Jose Baez already has a rebuttal ready
if the computer search was brought to trial.
 Would have argued that George Anthony was trying
to search for ways to commit suicide.

Explosives – any device containing an explosive
charge
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Fibers – any natural or synthetic fiber whose
transfer may be useful in establishing a
relationship between object or persons
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Includes any object at or removed from the scene of an
explosion
Suspected to contain residue from an explosion or use
as a detonation device
Cotton, silk, nylon, spandex, kevlar, as well as glass
and metallic fibers
Fingerprints – all prints of this nature both
visible and latent
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Firearms and Ammunition – any firearm as well as
discharged or intact ammunition suspected of
being involved in a criminal offense

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Glass – any particle or fragment that may have
been transferred to a person or object involved in a
crime.

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Spent casings and recovered bullets or “slugs”
Includes windows/panes of glass containing holes made
by bullets or other projectiles
Hair – any animal or human hair present that can
link a person to a crime
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Which of the following is not a valid piece of
physical evidence?
A. DNA sample
B. Fingerprints
C. Murder weapon
D. Diagram of a defective part in a fatal
automobile accident


Two potential suspects are in custody for an
armed robbery. Both claim they are innocent and
have alibis. Suspect A states that he was home all
night. Suspect B states that he ate dinner at a local
restaurant and then took a train out of town. The
only evidence is an eye-witness account who
claims to have seen a man fitting their height,
build, and hair color.
How would you go about collecting additional
evidence to find out if either suspect is
responsible for the crime.
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Suspect A
Did any neighbors see
him?
What did he eat for
dinner (takeout)?
Did he make any phone
calls (phone records)?
Was he using his
computer?
Playing video games?
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Suspect B
Which restaurant?
Speak with staff
How did he pay
(date/time on receipt)?
Train ticket/receipt?
Did he travel to the
destination he claims?
Purpose of trip out of
town?
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


BIG Question: How does a forensic scientist
collect and examine evidence for use in a
criminal investigation?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Last Day to hand in Labs and Case
Responses --- LOSS of 20% of Grade
3. Casey Anthony Case Study
4. Chapter 3 Notes
5. Review and HOMEWORK

Impressions – tire markings, shoes prints,
depressions in soft soil/sand, and all other forms of
tracts.

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Organs and physiological fluids – body organs and
fluids are submitted to toxicology to detect possible
existence of drugs and poisons as well as blood to be
analyzed for alcohol/drug content.

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Gloves, fabric impressions, and bite marks in skin,
foodstuffs, and other objects.
Urine, vomit, bile
Paint – any liquid or dried paint that may have been
transferred from one object to another during the act
of a crime

Transfer of paint from one vehicle to another in a car
accident

Petroleum products – any product removed from
a suspect or recovered from a crime scene.

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Plastic bags – polyethylene disposable bags such
as garbage or shopping bags.

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Gasoline residues or grease and oil stains
Examined/chemically analyzed to associate a bag to
similar bags at a crime scene or possessed by a suspect.
Plastic, rubber, polymers – remnants or residues
of man-made materials may be linked to objects
relevant to a crime scene or suspect.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ilGKjbp
MxYE
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Powder residues – any item suspected of
containing firearm powder residues.
Serial numbers – stolen property submitted for the
restoration of damaged/erased ID numbers
Soil and minerals – any object that could link a
person to a particular location
Tool marks – impression marks found in an object
caused by a “tool”.
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Vehicle Lights – examination of a vehicle’s
headlights and taillights to determine their use at
the time of an accident/impact.
Wood and other vegetative matter – wood,
sawdust, or vegetative matter discovered on
clothing, shoes, or tools that could link a suspect to
a crime location.
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Which piece of evidence would be placed in the
Impressions category?
A. narrow puncture on a piece of wood made
by a screwdriver.
B. Skid marks made from an automobile
C. the outline of a shoeprint found in mud
D. a bullet casing collected from the beach

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
You have collected two new pieces of evidence
from a crime scene… a piece of organic tissue
and an unmarked bottle containing pills. The
cause of death was ruled an accidental
shooting. How does this new evidence affect
the investigation?
Categorize the 2 new pieces of evidence.
Describe how you would analyze the new
evidence (Forensic Service Units / Why).

Organic Tissue

Pill Bottle/pills

Organs/Fluids

Drugs

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Biological Unit – human
or animal
- Match tissue to victim
Toxicology Unit –
Determine if tissue
sample contains
excessively high levels
of a drug/poison



Physical Science –
identify the type of drug
Fingerprint Unit –
match fingerprints on
bottle to victim?
Based upon results of
analysis, the shooting
may have been staged
to cover up a murder.
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BIG Question: What is circumstantial evidence?
1. Question of the Day and DO NOW
2. Paul Walker Investigation
3. FINISH Chapter 3!!!
4. Chapter 3 Test: Next Week
5. Review and HOMEWORK



Paul Walker’s autopsy revealed his body was
found in a “pugilistic stance”.
It may show that he was attempting to brace
himself for the impact of the crash.
What else might this stance reveal?



When a body is exposed to intense fire/heat,
the body will take on a “pugilistic stance”.
Autopsy results also reveal that Mr. Walker
was burned so severely that dental records
were required for official identification.
His tissues and organs were too badly
damaged to be eligible for donation.



1. Physical – A physical object or something
residing on a physical object.
2. Personal – A description or account of what has
been seen or heard.
3. Circumstantial – Evidence that requires an
inference (conclusion based on evidence).



Indirect evidence that implies something has occurred
Does not prove it
Leads to/connects other facts/circumstances together

Woman accused of embezzling money from
her company.


Makes big ticket purchases in cash around the time
the money was taken.
Wife is suing her husband for divorce
claiming he has had an affair.


Another woman’s fingerprints are found in their
bedroom.
Does not prove the affair but could be implied
because another woman has no other logical reason
to be in their bedroom.


Identify or compare the evidence.
Identification – process of determining an
object/substance’s physical or chemical identity.



Near absolute certainty as analytical techniques permit
Requires testing procedures
Sufficient tests to exclude all other possibilities
Problems – each type of evidence requires different
tests
Each test has a degree of specificity
1 test versus 5 tests to ensure accuracy




The Role of the Forensic Scientist
1. Determine the point and criteria for positive
identification
2. Relies on experience and education
3. Conclusion will have to be validated beyond any
reasonable doubt in a court of law


Collected specimen and control
specimen
Both evaluated under same set of
tests and examinations



Select specific properties from both
specimens
Determine if they have a
common origin
Comparisons lead to Probability


Individual
Associated with a
common source and
high degree of
probability.

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Fingerprints
Class
Associated with a
group and a low
degree of probability.
Difficult to determine
exact source of
evidence.
Blood types, carpet
fibers



Inceptive
At the start of
investigation
Evidence to base a
search for a
perpetrator



Corroborative
At the end of an
investigation
Evidence used to
prove or disprove





Which techniques will provide the higher
degree of probability?
A. A visual inspection of a bullet casing
B. A computer enhanced analysis of
fingerprints.
C. A computer and chemical analysis of a drug
specimen.
D. All will produce the same probability

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


BIG Question: How is physical evidence used
in a criminal investigation?
1. Question of the Day
2. STUDY GUIDES
3. Chapter 3 Test: TUESDAY Jan 14
4. Review and HOMEWORK


STUDY for Test
STUDY GUIDES


Forensics in the Casey Anthony Investigation
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/
criminal-justice/real-csi/casey-anthony-triallawyers-speak-out-about-the-casescontroversial-forensics/

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