Outcome 2.3 Cold War – Proxy Wars

Report
PAGE 1
Unit 2 – Outcome 2.3
The Cold War
Proxy Wars
GLOBAL HISTORY 12
WWW.NICKJORDAN.CA
HORTON HIGH SCHOOL
2014
GLOBAL HISTORY 12
CHINA – QUELLING A REVOLUTION
•
For two decades, Chinese communists
had struggled against the nationalist
government of Chiang Kai-Shek
•
The U.S. supported Chiang and gave
the Nationalist Party $3 billion in aid
during WWII
•
However, Mao Zedong’s Communist
Party in China was strong, especially
among Chinese peasants
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The Cold War Heats Up!
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Chinese Civil War
BATTLE FOR RED CHINA
•
After Japan left China at the end of the
War, Chinese Nationalists and Communists
fought a bloody civil war
•
Despite the U.S. sending $ billions to the
Nationalists, the Communists under Mao
won the war and ruled China
•
Chiang and the Nationalists fled China to
neighboring Taiwan (Formosa)
•
Mao established the People’s Republic of
China
MAO
Kai-Shek
REPARATIONS
•
The American public was shocked
that China had fallen to the
Communists
•
Many believed containment had
failed and communism was
expanding
•
American fear of communism and
communist expansion was
increasing
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YOU OWE US
The North Attacks the South
June 1950 – July 1953
•
On June 25, 1950, North Korean forces
swept across the 38th parallel in a
surprise attack on South Korea
•
With only 500 U.S. troops in South
Korea, the Soviets figured the
Americans would not fight to save
South Korea
•
Instead, America sent troops, planes
and ships to South Korea
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The Korean War
AMERICAN PUSH BACK
At first, North Korea seemed
unstoppable
However, General MacArthur
launched a counterattack with tanks,
heavy artillery, and troops
Many North Koreans surrendered;
others retreated across the 38th
parallel
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MacArthur
CHINA JOINS THE WAR
•
Just as it looked like the
Americans were going to
score a victory in the North,
300,000 Chinese soldiers
joined the war on the side
of the North Koreans
•
The fight between North
and South Korea had turned
into a war in which the main
opponents were Chinese
Communists vs. America
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Korean War
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KOREAN WAR
Let’s Attack China!
•
To halt the bloody stalemate,
General MacArthur called for an
extension of the war into China
•
Furthermore, MacArthur called for
the U.S. to drop atomic bombs on
several Chinese cities
•
President Truman rejected the
General’s requests
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Korean War
MacArthur vs Truman
•
MacArthur continued to urge
President Truman to attack China
and tried to go behind Truman’s
back – Truman was furious with
his general
•
On April 1, 1951, Truman made
the shocking announcement that
he had fired MacArthur
•
Americans were surprised and
many still supported their fallen
general
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Korean War
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The Truman Doctrine
Helping to rebuild
This doctrine, first used in Greece and Turkey in the late 1940s, vowed to provide aid
(money & military supplies) to support “free peoples who are resisting outside
pressures”
Sir Winston
Churchill
In a 1946 speech,
Churchill said, “An
iron curtain has
descended across the
continent” - the
division of Europe
1948
Truman Doctrine
Stop Communism
Buying Friends
Containment
Loyalty $$
The American policy
of “containment”
soon expanded into a
policy known as the
Truman Doctrine”
By 1950, the U.S. had
given $400 million in
aid to Greece and
Turkey
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The Marshall Plan
ECONOMIC AID TO REBUILD EUROPE
•
Post-war Europe was devastated
economically
•
In June 1947, Secretary of State George
Marshall proposed a U.S. aid package to
European nations
•
Western Europe accepted the help, while
Eastern Europe (read Stalin) rejected the
aid
The Marshall Plan helped Western Europe
recover economically
ECONOMIC AID TO REBUILD EUROPE
•
Over the next four years 16
European countries received $13
billion in U.S. aid
•
By 1952 Western Europe’s
economy was flourishing
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The Marshall Plan
Super Powers struggle over Germany
•
At the end of the war, Germany was
divided among the Allies into four zones
for the purpose of occupation
•
The U.S, France, and Great Britain
decided to combine their 3 zones into
one zone – West Germany, or the federal
Republic of Germany
•
The U.S.S.R. controlled East Germany, or
the German Democratic Republic
•
Now the superpowers were occupying an
area right next to each other – problems
were bound to occur
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GERMAN BATTLE
Battle for Berlin
•
The Berlin blockade (June ‘48 – May
‘49) was one of the first major
international crises of the Cold War.
•
During the multinational occupation of
post–World War II Germany, the Soviet
Union blocked the Western Allies' railway,
road, and canal access to the sectors of
Berlin under allied control.
•
Their aim was to force the western powers
to allow the Soviet zone to start supplying
Berlin with food, fuel, and aid, thereby
giving the Soviets practical control over the
entire city.
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BERLIN BLOCKADE 1948
Soviet Plan Foiled
•
Not wanting to invade and start a war
with the Soviets, America and Britain
started the Berlin airlift to fly supplies
into West Berlin
•
For 327 days, planes took off and
landed every few minutes, around the
clock
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BERLIN AIRLIFT
Soviet Plan Foiled
•
In 277,000 flights, they brought in 2.3
million tons of food, fuel and medicine
to the West Berliners
•
Realizing they were beaten and
suffering a public relations nightmare,
the Soviets lifted their blockade in May,
1949
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BERLIN AIRLIFT
The West Creates a Military Alliance
•
The Berlin blockade increased Western
Europe’s fear of Soviet aggression
•
As a result, ten West European nations
joined the U.S and Canada on April 4,
1949 to form a defensive alliance
known as the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization
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NATA FORMED

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