chapter 1

Report
MALAYSIA
POWER SYSTEM
OVERVIEW
NATIONAL GRID
• HV electric power transmission in Peninsular
Malaysia, operated and owned by TNB.
• Malaysia’s electric utility companies with state grids:
(a) Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) – National Grid
(b) Sabah Electricity Sdn. Bhd. (SESB)
(c) Sarawak Electricity Sdn. Bhd (SESCO)
• Electricity generation stations:
(a) TNB
(b) Independent Power Producer (IPP)
HV=high voltage
HISTORY
1964
1965
1980
• Bangsar Power Station was connected to the Connaught Bridge Power Station,
with the line subsequently extended to Malacca
• Connaught Bridge Power Station in Klang was the precursor of the energy grid
• A plan was set to connect the electricity generating plants that were spread
out all over the country.
• Perak - Temengor, Kenering, Bersia, Batang Padang
• Selangor - Connaught Bridge, Kapar , Serdang
• PAKA (Terengganu), Cameron Highlands (Pahang), Perai (Penang), Port
Dickson (Negeri Sembilan), Pergau (Kelantan), Pasir Gudang (Johor and
Malacca)
• The loop was complete with the placement of Kota Bharu within the grid.
GENERATION
All figures are in megawatts
Source: Suruhanjaya Tenega (Energy Commission) Annual Report
GENERATION
9.5
7
GAS
COAL
20.9
62.6
HYDRO
OTHERS
TRANSMISSION
• 132kV, 275kV and 500kV
• The 500 kV transmission system is the single
largest transmission system to be ever
developed in Malaysia.
• The National Grid is linked via 132 kV HVAC
and 300 kV HVDC interconnection to Thailand
(300MW) and 230 kV submarine cables to
Singapore (200MW).
DISTRIBUTION
• 33 kV, 22 kV, 11 kV, 6.6 kV and 415V/240V
ENERGY POLICIES
• The energy policy of Malaysia is determined by the
Malaysian Government, which address issues of energy
production, distribution, and consumption.
• Government-linked companies PETRONAS and TNB are
major players in Malaysia's energy sector.
• Governmental agencies are:
(a) Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water
(b) Energy Commission (Suruhanjaya Tenaga)
(c) Malaysia Energy Centre (Pusat Tenaga Malaysia).
GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY
Importance of Electricity
• Convenient energy form
-It can be converted from one energy form into any
other form.
-Eg: bulb glows when electricity passes through it
(conversion of electrical energy into light energy)
• Easiness to control
-An electric motor can be started or stopped by turning
ON or OFF a switch.
• Flexibility
-It can be easily transported from one place to another
by using conductor.
Importance of Electricity
• Cheapness
-It is much cheaper than other forms of energy
and economical to use for domestic, commercial,
and industrial purposes.
• Cleanliness
-It has no smoke, fumes, and poisonous gases.
• High transmission efficiency
-It can be transmitted efficiently from the centre
of generation to the consumers by using
transmission lines.
ENERGY SOURCES FOR
GENERATION
Sun
Renewable Energy
Wind
Water
ENERGY
SOURCES
Fuel
Non-renewable
Energy
Coal
Nuclear
SUN (SOLAR)
• Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into
electricity, either directly using photovoltaic (PV), or
indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP).
• This heat can be used to produce steam and then
electrical energy with the combination of turbinegenerator.
• Limitations:
-It is not economical because it requires a large area for
the generation of small amount of electrical power.
-It cannot be used in cloudy days or night.
CSP & PV
The PS10 concentrates sunlight
from a field of heliostats on a
central tower.
The PS10 concentrates sunlight from a
field of heliostats on a central power.
Nellis Solar Power Plant in US, one of the
largest PV power plants in North America.
• The conversion of wind energy into a useful form
of energy.
• Eg: wind turbines to make electricity, windmills
for mechanical power, wind-pumps for water
pumping, or sails to propel ships.
• Limitations:
-Unreliable because of uncertainty about wind
pressure.
-Power generated is quite small.
Aerial view of Lillgrund Wind
Farm, Sweden
Wind power generators in Spain,
near an Osborne bull.
• The kinetic energy of flowing water can also
be used to spin turbines to generate
electricity.
• Limitations:
-It involves high capital cost due to
construction dam.
-There is uncertainty about the availability of
huge amount of water due to dependence on
weather conditions.
The Gordon Dam in Tasmania
is a large hydro facility, with
an installed capacity of 430
MW.
Bakun Dam
• The main sources of energy are fuels, solid
fuel as coal, liquid fuel as oil and gas fuel as
nature gas.
• When the fuels are burnt, they release the
heat energy to produce mechanical energy
and later electrical energy.
• Limitations:
-Can contribute the air and water pollution.
-High maintenance cost
Coal-fired power plants in Jewett,
Texas.
Montana's Natural Gas &
Coal Fired Generation.
• Nuclear energy means the part of the energy
released by fusion or fission of URANIUM
generate steam which drives the steam
turbine-generator to produce electricity.
• Limitations:
-High cost of nuclear plant
-Problem of disposal of radioactive waste
-Dearth of trained personnel to handle the
plant.
Nuclear power plants often have huge cooling towers.
No
Particular
Water-power
Fuels
Nuclear energy
1
Initial cost
High
Low
Highest
2
Running cost
Less
High
Least
3
Reserves
Permanent
Exhaustible
Inexhaustible
4
Cleanliness
Cleanest
Dirtiest
Clean
5
Simplicity
(Cooling
system)
Simplest
Complex
Most complex
6
Reliability
Most reliable
Less reliable
More reliable
Outflow during a test at the
hydropower plant at the Hoover
Dam, located on the NevadaArizona border.
Russian “Sayano-Shushenskoe” (yep it’s
hard to read name) hydro electric
power plant is the biggest hydro power
plant in Russia
DAM was built on a
large river that has a
large drop in
elevation.
It stores lots of water
behind it in the
RESERVOIR.
WATER INTAKE is near
the bottom of the
dam.
Electricity is
generated and passed
through the power
lines to consumers.
The water turns the
TURBINE which then
turns the SHAFT of
the generator.
Gravity causes the
water to fall through
the PENSTOCK inside
the dam.
 A turbine converts the energy
of flowing water into
mechanical energy.
 A generator converts this
mechanical energy into
electricity according to
Faraday’s Law.
 When the rotor turns, it
causes the field poles to move
past the conductors mounted
in the stator.
 This, in turn, causes electricity
to flow and a voltage to
develop at the generator
output terminals."
The heat is used to
generate steam
which drives a steam
turbine connected to
a generator which
produces electricity.
The coal in the COAL STORAGE is delivered to the
coal handling plant to crushed it into small pieces.
The coal is fed to the BOILER by belt
conveyors.
The coal is burnt in the boiler and the ash
produced after the combustion is delivered to
the ash pond for disposal.
The heat of combustion convert water into
steam at high temperature and pressure.
The dry and superheated steam from the super
heater is fed to the steam turbine through the
valve.
The heat energy of steam when passing
over the blades of turbine is converted
into mechanical energy.
The turbine is coupled to a generator
which converts mechanical energy into
electrical energy.
After it passes through the turbine, the steam is
condensed in the condenser and recycled to where
it was heated (Rankine Cycle).
SCHEMATIC LAYOUT
OPERATION
Nuclear
power
station
use a fuel
called
URANIUM
It is
formed
into LONG
RODS and
submerge
in water
to kept
them cool.
When they
are
removed
from water,
the uranium
atom is split
into two
and
released
RADIATION
and HEAT.
STEAM is
produced
and then
fed to a
steam
turbine.
The
generator
converts
kinetic
energy
supplied
by the
turbine
into
electrical
energy.
After it
passes
through
the
turbine,
the steam
is
condense
d in the
condenser
The water
is then
pumped
again into
nuclear
reactor
and the
cycle
begins
again.
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF
VARIOUS POWER PLANT
N
o
1
Item
Steam power station
Site/
location
2
Initial cost
Located at a place where
ample supply of water and
coal
is
available,
transportation facilities are
adequate
Lower than hydroelectric and
nuclear power plant
3
Running
Higher than hydroelectric and
cost
nuclear power plant
Limit
of Limited reserves
source of
power
4
5
Cooling
system
6
Environme
ntal
pollution
Hydro-electric
power plant
Located where large
reservoirs can e
obtained
by
constructing a dam
such as in hilly areas
high
Diesel power plant
Nuclear
power
plant
Located at any place Located away from
because they require thickly
populated
less space and small areas to avoid radio
quantity of water
active pollution
Less as compared to highest
other plant
Highest among
all
plants
Not
dependable Limited reserves
because of wide
variations in the
rainfall every year
Need more water to cooling
Need less water to
the system and need a big
cooling the system
system to cooling the system
because just cooling for
the oil only
Air pollution because of ash
and sulfur dioxide
low
Water
and
pollution
Minimum cost
Available
in
sufficient quantity
Use the gas reactor
cooler
noise Pollution cause the
radio active
GENERATION OF 3-PHASE EMF
GENERATION OF 3-PHASE EMF
• 3 coils RR1, YY1 and BB1 are fixed 1200 apart.
• Ends of each coil are connected to the slip rings.
• The coils rotated anti-clockwise in a uniform
magnetic field between the poles “N” and “S”.
• EMF generation depends upon the position of the
coil with respect to the magnetic field.
• For the position in the above figure, EMFRR1=0V.
• When moved by 900, EMFRR1= max . EMFYY1 and
EMFBB1 have same magnitude as EMFRR1 but lag
by 1200 and 2400 respectively.
VECTOR DIAGRAM OF 3ϕ SYSTEM
SINGLE-LINE DIAGRAM (SLD)
• SLD is a graphical representation of electrical
circuit drawn using single line instead of
drawing 3 separate lines for 3 phases.
• Elements on the diagram do not represent the
physical size or location of the electrical
equipment.
SLD SYMBOLS
SLD
SLDDIAGRAM
DIAGRAM
Step down transformer
G
Load
Step up transformer
Transmission line
Figure 1.7 : Single line diagram of simple electrical power system
IMPEDANCE DIAGRAM FOR 3Φ
GENERATOR
ELECTRICAL ENERGY DEMAND
• Energy Demand is the maximum amount of
electrical energy that is being consumed at a
given time.
• It is measured in kilowatts (kW) and kilovolt
ampere (kVA).
• Energy Consumption is the total electricity used
for a period of time.
• It is measured in kilowatts hour (kWh).
• Eg: A 1000W loads used for one hour consumes
one kilowatts hour.
ENERGY DEMAND vs ENERGY
CONSUMPTION
ENERGY DEMAND vs ENERGY
CONSUMPTION
LIGHTING EXAMPLE :
-One 100W light bulb burning for 10 hours
consumes 1,000 Wh @ 1 kWh.
-The entire time it is on, it requires or
"demands" 100W @ 0.1 kW from the utility.
-That means the utility must have that 0.1 kW
ready whenever the customer turns the lamp
on.
ENERGY DEMAND vs ENERGY
CONSUMPTION
- Similarly, ten 100W light bulbs burning for 1
hour consume 1,000 Wh @ 1 kWh.
-In both examples, the consumption is 1 kWh,
however, look how differently the second
situation impacts the utility from a demand
perspective.
-The serving utility must now be prepared to
provide ten times as much 'capacity'
in response to the "demand" of the 10 light bulbs
operating all at once.
VARIABLE LOAD ON POWER STATION
• A device which taps electrical energy from
electric power system is called a LOAD on the
system.
• The load may be resistive, inductive,
capacitive or some combination of them.
VARIABLE LOAD ON POWER STATION
Domestic Load
Commercial Load
Industrial Load
Types of Loads
Municipal Load
Irrigation Load
Traction Load
LOAD CURVE
TERMS
• Connected Load
- It is the sum of continuous ratings of all the equipments
connected to supply system.
• Maximum Demand
- It is the greatest demand of load on the power station during
a given period.
• Demand Factor
- It is the ratio of maximum demand on the power station to
its connected load.
Demand Factor 
Max . Demand
Connected
Load
TERMS
• Average Load / Average Demand
- The average of loads occurring on the power station in a
given period (day or month or year).
TERMS
• Load Factor
- The ratio of average load to the maximum demand during a
given period.
TERMS
• Diversity Factor
- The ratio of the sum of individual maximum demands to the
maximum demand on power station.
POWER QUALITY
• DEFINITION
- A term that used to discuss the events in electric power grids
that can damage or disrupt sensitive electronic devices.
• Occur due to the increased use of power electronic devices in
industrial and commercial sector which are more sensitive to
voltage variations.
FACTORS AFFECTING POWER QUALITY
• Variations in the peak or RMS voltage.
- When the rms voltage exceeds the nominal voltage, the event is
called “VOLTAGE SWELL”.
- when the rms voltage is below the nominal voltage, the event is
called “VOLTAGE SAG”.
• Undervoltage
- occurs when the nominal voltage drops below 90% for more than
1 minute.
• Overvoltage
- occurs when the nominal voltage rises above 110% for more than
1 minute.
• Random or repetitive variations in the RMS voltage between 90%
and 110% of nominal can produce a phenomenon known as
"flicker" in lighting equipment.
FACTORS AFFECTING POWER QUALITY
• Variations in the frequency
• Variations in the wave shape – usually described as
harmonics.
• Nonzero low-frequency impedance
- when a load draws more power, the voltage drops.
• Nonzero high-frequency impedance
- when a load demands a large amount of current, then stops
demanding it suddenly, there will be a dip or spike in the
voltage due to the inductances in the power supply line.
VOLTAGE WAVEFORMS
METHODS TO ENHANCE PQ
METHODS TO ENHANCE PQ

similar documents