### Practice FRQ

```
Imagine that you are a sports psychologist interested
in the usefulness of a new visualization technique
that has been developed for Olympic divers. You
have decided to conduct an experiment to determine
if the technique is effective. Discuss the importance
of each of the following in regard to the experiment
you are designing:
 Population
 Sample
 Hypothesis
 Independent variable
 Dependent variable
 Operational definitions
 Control group
 Random assignment
 Replication
 The
student must make clear
that the population is the
group of individuals that the
participants are drawn from, in
this case, the population is
Olympic divers (or some
subset of Olympic divers).
 The
student must recognize that
the sample is the group of
Olympic divers that is selected
for this experiment. The sample
must be random so the results
of the experiment can be
generalized to the population.

The student must explain that the
hypothesis is the statement of expectation
about the outcome of the experiment. In
this case, the hypothesis is that the new
visualization technique will produce better
dives. The student may state the null
hypothesis, such as: “There is no
difference between groups of Olympic
divers.” Students must state the
hypothesis for this particular experiment;
a basic definition of “hypothesis” alone
should not earn the point.

The student must be aware that the
independent variable is the variable
manipulated by the experimenter. In this
case, the IV is whether or not a diver is
taught the new visualization technique.
Students must state the independent
variable for this particular experiment; a
basic definition of “independent variable”
alone should not earn the point.
 The
student must be aware that the
dependent variable shows the effect
of the independent variable. In this
case, the dependent variable is the
quality of the dives. Again, students
must state the dependent variable
for this particular experiment to earn
the point.
 To
earn this point, the
student must explain
exactly how the dependent
variable will be measured.
The clearest way to do this
is with diving scores.
 The
student must explain the
need for a group to which results
of the visualization group may be
compared. In this case, the
control group would be a similar
group of divers that is not trained
in the new technique.
 The
student must understand the
importance of randomly assigning
participants to the visualization
and control groups. This allows
the experimenter to assume that
the only difference between the
divers in the two groups is whether
or not they are taught the
visualization technique.
 The
student must explain that
experimental results are not fully
accepted until the experiment is
repeated. If the experiment
cannot be replicated, the results
were probably caused by chance