industrial age world wars

Industrialism and a New
Global Age
Life in the Industrial Age
National Triumphs in Europe
Growth of Western Democracies
The New Imperialisms
V. Horvath
Chapter 22
Life in the Industrial Age
Chapter Overview
1. The Industrial Revolution Spreads
2. The World of Cities
3. Changing Attitudes and Values
4. A New Culture
The Industrial Revolution
• The Big Idea – The Second Industrial
Revolution was marked by the spread of
industry, the development of new
technologies, and the rise of big business
• Vocabulary – Dynamo, assemebly line,
stock, cartel
• Focus/Review – What industrial powers
emerged in the 1800s? What impact did
new technology have on industry,
transportation, and communication? How
did big business emerge in the late 1800s?
• Pg 544
Spread of the Industrial
1. Identify the following: Alfred Nobel,
Michael Faraday, Thomas Edison,
Hendry Ford, Orville and Wilbur
Wright, Alfred Krupp
2. How did the Industrial Revolution
spread in the 1800s?
3. How did technology help industry
The World of Cities
• The Big Idea – The population of cities
grew as people moved to urban centers
for jobs
• Vocabulary – Germ theory, urban
renewal, mutual-aid society
• Focus/Review – What was the impact of
medical advances in the late 1800s?
How had cities changed by 1900? How
did working-class struggles lead to
improved conditions for workers?
• Pg 551
Cities Expand
1. Identify the following: Louis
Pasteur, Robert Koch, Florence
Nightingale, Joseph Lister
2. Why did population increase in the
late 1800s?
3. Describe three ways that city life
changed in the 1800s
Changing Attitudes and
• The Big Idea – The Industrial Revolution
changed the social order in the western world,
and new ideas challenged long-held traditions
• Vocabulary – Cult of domesticity, temperance
movement, women’s suffrage, social gospel
• Focus/Review – What values shaped the new
social order? How did women and educators
seek change? How did science challenge
existing beliefs? What role did religion play in
urban society?
• Pg 555
Society Changes
1. Identify the following: Atomic theory,
Charles Lyell, Social Darwinism
2. How did the social order change in
industrial nations?
3. Describe three values associated with
the middle class
4. What were the main goals of the
women’s movement? Why did it have
such strong opposition?
A New Culture
• The Big Idea – New artistic styles
emerged as a reaction to the Industrial
• Vocabulary – Romanticism, realism,
• Focus/Review – What themes shaped
romantic art, literature, and music?
How did realists respond to the
industrialized, urban world? How did
the visual arts change?
• Pg 562
Romanticism, Realism,
1. Identify the following: Lord Byron,
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe,
Beethoven, Charlotte Brote, Charles
Dickens, Claude Monet
2. Explain romanticism, realism, and
Chapter 23
Nationalism Triumphs in
Chapter Overview
1. Building a German Nation
2. Strengthening Germany
3. Unifying Italy
4. Nationalism Threatens Old Empires
5. Russia: Reform and Reaction
Building a German Nation
• The Big Idea – Otto von Bismarck, the
Chancellor of Prussia, led the drive for
German unity
• Vocabulary – Chancellor, annex,
Kaiser, Reich
• Focus/Review – What early changes
promoted German unity? How did
Bismarck unify Germany? What was the
basic political organization of the new
German empire?
• Pg 570
Unifying Germany
1. Identify the following: Otto von
Bismarck, William I
2. What territorial and economic
changes promoted German unity?
3. How did the emperor and his
chancellor retain power in the new
German government?
Strengthening German
• The Big Idea – Germany increased its
power by building up its industry and
armed forces
• Vocabulary – Kulturkampf, social
• Focus/Review – What marked Germany
as an industrial giant? Why was
Bismarck called the Iron Chancellor?
• Pg 574
Making Germany Strong
1. How did Germany become an
industrial giant in the late 1800s?
2. Why did Bismarck try to crush the
Catholic Church and socialists?
3. What policies did William II
Unifying Italy
• The Big Idea – During the 1800s,
influential leaders helped to create a
unified Italy
• Vocabulary – Anarchist, emigration
• Focus/Review – What were the key
obstacles to Italian unity? What roles
did Count Camillo Cavour and Giuseppe
Garibaldi play in the struggle for Italy?
WHAT Challenges faced the new nation
of Italy?
• Pg 577
Italy Unites
1. Identify the following: Giuseppe
Mazzini, Risorgimento, Victor
Emmanuel II, Camillo Cavour,
Giuseppe Garibaldi
2. What obstacles to unity did Italian
nationalists face? What conditions
favored unity?
3. Describe the problems Italians face
after unification
Nationalism Threatens Old
• The Big Idea – Desires for national
independence threatened to break up
the Austrian and Ottoman empires
• Vocabulary – NONE
• Focus/Review – How did nationalism
contribute to the decline of the
Austrian empire? What were the main
characteristics of the Dual Monarchy?
How did the growth of nationalism
affect the Balkans?
• Pg 581
Old Empires Feel the Heat
1. Explain how nationalism affected
the Austrian empire
2. How was the Dual Monarchy
organized? Why did it fail to end
nationalist demands?
3. How did Balkan nationalism
contribute to the decline of the
Ottoman empire?
Russia: Reform and Reaction
• The Big Idea – Industrialization and reform
came more slowly to Russia than to Western
• Vocabulary – Colossus, emancipation,
pogrom, Duma
• Focus/Review – How did conditions in
Russia affect progress? Why did czars follow
a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction?
How did the problems of industrialization
contribute to the growing crisis and
outbreak of revolution?
• Pg 584
Conditions in Russia
1. Identify the following: Bloody
Sunday, October Manifesto
2. What conditions in Russia posed
challenges to the nation in the early
1800s? How did czars usually react
to change?
3. What were the causes of the
revolution of 1905? How did
Nicholas II respond?
Chapter 24
Growth of Western
Chapter Overview
1. Britain Becomes More Democratic
2. A Century of Reform
3. Division and Democracy in France
4. Expansion of the United States
Britain Becomes More
• The Big Idea – Throughout the 1800s,
political reform gradually expanded
suffrage and made Parliament more
• Vocabulary – Rotten borough, secret ballot
• Focus/Review – Why did reformers seek to
change Parliament in the 1800s? What
values did Queen Victoria represent? How
did the Liberal and Conservative parties
help bring a new era to British politics?
• Pg 594
New Era in Britain
1. Identify the following: Benjamin
Disraeli, Chartism, Victoria, William
2. How did the Reform Act of 1832
change Parliament?
3. What middle-class values are
associated with the Victorian age?
A Century of Reform
• The Big Idea – Parliament passed a
wide variety of reform measures, but
women’s suffrage and the status of
Ireland remained difficult issues
• Vocabulary – Free trade, capital
offense, penal colony, home rule
• Focus/Review –
• Pg 597
Social and Economic Reforms
1. Identify the following: Corn Laws,
Fabian Society, Emmeline
Pankhurst, Catholic Emancipation
Act, Great Hunger, Charles Stewart
2. Describe three social reforms that
helped the British working class
3. Why did Irish nationalist oppose
British rule?
Division and Democracy in
• The Big Idea – Democratic reforms in France
took place under the Second Empire of
Napoleon III and its successor, the Third
• Vocabulary – Provisional, premier, libel
• Focus/Review – What domestic and foreign
policies did Napoleon III pursue? What
impact did the Dreyfus affair and other
challenges have on the Third Republic? How
did the French government take steps
toward reform in the early 1900s?
• Pg 603
Third Republic France
1. Identify the following: Paris
Commune, Georges Boulanger,
Alfred Dreyfus, Jeanne-Elizabeth
2. Describe the government of France
under the Second Empire
3. Describe two reforms enacted in
France in the early 1900s
Expansion of the United States
• The Big Idea – In the United States, the 1800s
were a time of changing borders, growing
industry, and expanding democracy
• Vocabulary – Expansionism, abolitionist,
secede, isolationism
• Focus/Review – How did the United States
extend its territory? How did American
democracy grow before and after the Civil War?
What impact did economic growth and social
reform have on the United States?
• Pg 608
Changes in the United States
1. Identify the following: Louisiana
Purchase, Manifest Destiny,
Frederick Douglass, Abraham
Lincoln, Fifteenth Amendment
2. Describe how the United States
grew in each of the following areas
in the 1800s: a) territory b)
population c)economy d)
Chapter 25
The New Imperialism
Chapter Overview
1. A Western-Dominated World
2. The Partition of Africa
European Challenges to the Muslim World
4. The British Take Over India
5. China and the New Imperialism
A Western-Dominated World
• The Big Idea – In the late 1800s,
industrial nations of the West engaged
in imperialism and dominated much of
the world
• Vocabulary – Imperialism, sphere of
• Focus/Review – What were the causes
of the “new imperialism”? Why was
western imperialism so successful? How
did governments rule their empires?
• Pg 618
Western Imperialism
1. Describe three causes of the new
2. How did people oppose western
3. Describe three different forms of
imperial rule
The Partition of Africa
• The Big Idea – By the end of the 1800s,
the imperialist powers of Europe
claimed control over most of Africa
• Vocabulary – Jihad, elite
• Focus/Review – What forces were
shaping Africa in the early 1800s? How
did European contact with Africa
increase? How did Leopold II start a
scramble for colonies? How did Africans
resist imperialism?
• Pg 621
The Scramble in Africa
1. Describe one development in each
region of Africa in the early 1800s
2. How did European contact with
Africa increase?
3. Describe two examples of African
resistance to European imperialism
European Challenges to the
Muslim World
• The Big Idea – During the 1800s, European
nations extended their power into parts of
the Muslim world
• Vocabulary – Pasha, genocide, concession
• Focus/Review – What were the sources of
stress in the Muslim world? What problems
did the Ottoman empire face? How did
Egypt seek to modernize? Why were
European powers interested in Iran?
• Pg 627
Changes to the Muslim World
1. Identify the following: Mahdi,
Young Turks, Armenians,
Muhammad Ali, Suez Canal, Qajars
2. Describe problems that contributed
to the Muslim decline. How did
Europeans take advantage of these
3. Why did Russia and Britain compete
for power in Iran?
The British Take Over India
• The Big Idea – Despite Indian
opposition, Britain gradually extended
its control over most of India
• Vocabulary – Sepoy, viceroy, purdah
• Focus/Review – what were the causes
and effects of the Sepoy Rebellion?
How did British rule affect India? How
did Indians view western culture? What
were the origins of Indian nationalism?
• Pg 631
The British in India
1. What were the causes and effects of
the Sepoy Rebellion?
2. Describe three effects of British
colonial rule on India
3. How did Indian and British culture
China and the New Imperialism
• The Big Idea – During the 1800s, Qing
China declined as western powers used
diplomacy and war to gain power in East
• Vocabulary – Trade surplus, trade deficit,
• Focus/Review – What trade rights did
westerners seek in China? What internal
problems did Chinese reformers try to solve?
How did the Qing dynasty come to an end?
• Pg 635
Changes in China
1. Identify the following: Opium War,
Treaty of Nanjing, Taiping
Rebellion, Ci Xi, Open Door Policy,
Boxers Uprising, Sun Yixian
2. How did westerners gain greater
trading power in China?
World Wars and Revolution
World War I and Its Aftermath
Revolution in Russia
Nationalism and Revolution Around the
World War II and Its Aftermath
V. Horvath
Chapter 27
World War I and Its
Chapter Overview
1. The Stage Is Set
2. The Guns of August
3. A New Kind of Conflict
4. Winning the War
5. Making the Peace
The Stage Is Set
• The Big Idea – In the late 1800s, a
number of forces were pushing Europe
to the brink of war
• Vocabulary – Pacifism, militarism
• Focus/Review – What efforts in the
early 1900s were made toward peace?
How did nationalism and international
rivalries push Europe toward war?
What were the causes and effects of the
European alliance system?
• Pg 678
Rivalries and Alliances
1. Identify the following: Allies and
Central Powers
2. Describe how each of the following
served to inflame tensions in
Europe: a) nationalism b) Imperial
rivalries c) militarism
3. Why did European nations form
alliances? How did alliances
increase fear?
The Guns of August
• The Big Idea – The assassination of
Archduke Ferdinand ignited the Balkan
“powder keg” and sparked World War I
• Vocabulary – Ultimatum, mobilize
• Focus/Review – How did ethnic
tensions in the Balkans spark a political
assassination? How did conflict
between Austria-Hungary and Serbia
widen? How do historians view the
outbreak of World War I?
• Pg 682
Assassination and Tension
1. Why was Archduke Ferdinand
assassinated? What was the
reaction to the assassination?
2. Describe how each of the following
nations were drug into the conflict:
Germany, Russia, France, and
3. Who do modern historians think
was responsible for the war?
A New Kind of Conflict
• The Big Idea – Modern weapons resulted in
huge numbers of casualties and helped
prevent either side from gaining an
• Vocabulary – Stalemate, no mans land,
zeppelin, U-boat
• Focus/Review – Why did a stalemate
develop on the Western Front? How did
technology make World War I different
from earlier wars? How did the war become
a global conflict?
• Pg 685
A New Kind of War
1. Why did war on the Western Front
turn into a stalemate?
2. Describe three ways new
technology affected the war
Winning the War
• The Big Idea – In their efforts to achieve
victory, governments committed all
their nations resources to the war effort
• Vocabulary – Total war, propaganda,
atrocity, armistice
• Focus/Review – How did World War I
become a total war? What effect did the
continuing war have on morale? What
were the causes and results of
American entry into the war?
• Pg 690
Total War
1. Identify the following: Woodrow
Wilson, Lusitania, Fourteen Points
2. What impact did wartime failures
have on Russia?
3. Why did America enter the war?
What impact did American entry
have on the war?
Making the Peace
• The Big Idea – As Europe struggled to
recover from the devastation of war, world
leaders met in Paris to craft a peace treaty
• Vocabulary – Pandemic, reparations,
• Focus/Review – What were the costs of the
war? What issues faced the delegates to the
Paris Peace Conference? Why were many
people dissatisfied with the Treaty of
Versailles and other peace settlements?
• Pg 694
Dissatisfaction After the War
1. Identify the following: David Lloyd
George, Georges Clemenceau,
League of Nations, Treaty of
2. Describe conditions in Europe after
3. How was Woodrow Wilson’s goals
at the peace talks differ from those
of other Allied leaders?
Chapter 28
Revolution in Russia
Chapter Overview
1. Two Revolutions in Russia
2. From Lenin to Stalin
3. Life in a Totalitarian State
Two Revolutions in Russia
• The Big Idea – After two revolutions and a
civil war, Lenin and the Communist party
were the new rulers of Russia
• Vocabulary – Proletariat, commissar
• Focus/Review – Why did revolution occur in
Russia in March 1917? Why did Lenin and
the Bolsheviks launch the November
revolution? How did the Communists defeat
their opponents in Russia’s civil war?
• Pg 702
Lenin and the Bolsheviks
1. Identify the following: Nicholas and
Alexandra, Gregory Rasputin,
Bolsheviks, Leon Trotsky, Red Army
2. What were the causes of the March
3. How did Lenin adapt Marxism to
conditions in Russia?
From Lenin to Stalin
• The Big Idea – After Lenin helped the
country recover from civil war, Stalin
established a brutal Communist dictatorship
in the Soviet Union
• Vocabulary – Command economy, kulak
• Focus/Review – How did the Communist
state develop under Lenin? What were the
effects of Stalin’s five-year plans? Why did
Stalin launch the Great Purge? How did
Soviet foreign policy affect relations with
the western powers?
• Pg 707
Stalin and Lenin
1. How did Lenin make a compromise
between the ideas of capitalism and
2. What were the goals and results of
Stalin’s five-year plans?
3. What were the causes and effects of
the Great Purge?
4. How did Soviet foreign policy lead
to difficult relations with the West?
Life in a Totalitarian State
• The Big Idea – Stalin turned the Soviet
Union into a totalitarian state that
regulated every aspect of the lives of its
• Vocabulary – Totalitarian state, atheism,
socialist realism
• Focus/Review – How did Stalin create a
totalitarian state? How did communism
change Soviet society? How did state
control affect the arts in the Soviet Union?
• Pg 713
Living in a Totalitarian State
1. What methods did Stalin use to
create a totalitarian state?
2. Who made up the new elite in Soviet
society? What special privileges did
they enjoy?
3. How did the Soviet government
make sure that most writers and
artists conformed to the style of
socialist realism?
Chapter 29
Nationalism and Revolution
Around the World
Chapter Overview
Struggle for Change in Latin America
Nationalist Movements in Africa and the Middle East
India Seeks Self-Rule
Upheavals in China
Empire of the Rising Sun
Struggle for Change in Latin
• The Big Idea – The desire for lands,
better wages, and democratic reforms
led to the Mexican Revolution
• Vocabulary – Nationalization, economic
nationalism, cultural nationalism
• Focus/Review – What were the causes
of the Mexican Revolution? What
reforms were introduced in Mexico?
How did nationalism affect Mexico?
What was the Good Neighbor Policy?
• Pg 722
Mexican Revolution
1. Describe three causes of the
Mexican Revolution
2. Describe how nationalism affected
3. How did Franklin Roosevelt change
United States policy toward Latin
Nationalist Movements in
Africa and the Middle East
• The Big Idea – Following World War I,
nationalist sentiment contributed to many
changes in Africa and the Middle East
• Vocabulary – Apartheid, polygamy
• Focus/Review – How did Africans resist
colonial rule? What signs of nationalism
developed in Africa? How did turkey and
Iran modernize? How did European
mandates contribute to the growth of Arab
• Pg 726
Africa and the Middle East
after WWI
1. How did Africans resist the impact
of colonialism?
2. Describe examples of the rise of
nationalism in Africa
3. Why were many Arabs angered by
decisions made at the Paris Peace
Conference after WWI?
India Seeks Self-Rule
• The Big Idea – Mohandas Gandhi and the
Congress party led the drive for
independence in India
• Vocabulary – Ahimsa, Civil disobedience
• Focus/Review – What sparked the Indian
independence movement after WWI? How
did Mohandas Gandhi influence the
independence movement? What did the Salt
March symbolize?
• Pg 731
India and Independence
1. Who was Mohandas Gandhi?
2. How did the Amritsar massacre
affect the movement for Indian
3. Why did Gandhi organize the Salt
Upheavals in China
• The Big Idea – Civil war and foreign
invasions plagued the new Chinese
• Vocabulary – NONE
• Focus/Review – What were the key
challenges to the Chinese republic?
What leaders emerged in the “new”
China? How did invasion by Japan
affect China?
• Pg 734
The New China
1. Identify the following: Sun Yixian,
May Fourth Movement,
Guomindang, Jiang Jieshi, Mao
Zedong, Long March
2. Why did the new republic of China
fall into chaos after 1912?
3. Why did Jiang side with the
Communists after 1931?
Empire of the Rising Sun
• The Big Idea – By the 1930, the Japanese
military dominated a government that
emphasized service to the nation and a
policy of imperialistic expansion
• Vocabulary – Diet, ultranationalist
• Focus/Review – How did liberal changes
affect Japan during the 1920s? How did
nationalists react to Japan’s problems
during the Great Depression? How did the
militarists use their power?
• Pg 738
Militarists in China
1. What liberal changes occurred in
Japan in the 1920s?
2. How did nationalists deal with the
Great Depression?
3. What goals did Japanese militarists
pursue at home? What goals did
they pursue overseas?
Chapter 31
World War II and Its
Chapter Overview
1. Aggression, Appeasement, and War
2. The Global Conflict: Axis Advances
3. The Global Conflict: Allied Successes
4. Toward Victory
5. From World War to Cold War
Aggression, Appeasement, and
• The Big Idea – During the 1930,
dictators undetermined world peace
• Vocabulary – Sanction, appeasement,
• Focus/Review – How did dictators and
the Spanish Civil war challenge world
peace? How did continuing German
aggression lead Europe toward war?
What factors encouraged the coming of
• Pg 770
Aggressions Spur War
1. How did Japan, Italy, and Germany
test the resolve of Western
democracies before 1937?
2. Explain how other countries got
involved in the Spanish Civil War
3. What acts of aggression did
Germany commit in 1938-39? How
did other nations acts of
appeasement lead to war?
The Global Conflict: Axis
• The Big Idea – The early years of World
war II were marked by Axis victories
• Vocabulary – Blitzkrieg, radar, sonar
• Focus/Review – What early gains
allowed the axis powers to control
much of Europe? What were the Battle
of Britain and operation Barbarossa?
How did Japan respond to growing
American involvement?
• Pg 775
Axis War
1. Identify the following: Dunkirk,
Winston Churchill, Battle of Britain,
Operation Barbarossa, Lead-Lease
Act, Pearl Harbor
2. How did the Axis powers achieve
victories in 1939-40?
3. Why did General Tojo order a
surprise attack on the United
The Global Conflict: Allied
• The Big Idea – In 1942 and 1943, the
tide of war began to turn as Allied
forces won key victories
• Vocabulary – Genocide, reparations
• Focus/Review – How did Germany and
Japan treat people in occupied lands?
How did the Allies turn the tide of war?
How did the Red Army and the Allied
invasion of France undo German Plans?
• Pg 781
Allies Turn the Tide of War
1. Identify the following: Holocaust,
Battle of Stalingrad, D-Day
2. How did Hitler try to achieve a “new
order” in Germany? How did the
Japanese treat people they
3. How did the Allies turn the tide of
Toward Victory
• The Big Idea – Continued Allied
successes led to victory over Germany
and Japan in 1945
• Vocabulary – Island-hopping, kamikaze
• Focus/Review –How was the Pacific
war fought? How did the Allies defeat
Nazi Germany? What debates
surrounded the defeat of Japan?
• Pg 787
Nazi’s Defeated & War in the
1. Identify the following: Battle of the
Coral Sea, Battle of the Bulge, V-E
Day, Harry Truman
2. How did the United States fight the
war in the Pacific?
3. How did the Allies defeat Germany?
4. How was Japan defeated?
From World War to Cold War
• The Big Idea – As the war ended, new
tensions developed between the United
States and the soviet Union
• Vocabulary – Containment, satellite
• Focus/Review – What issues arose in
the aftermath of war? Why did the
Allies organize the United Nations?
How did the breakup of the wartime
alliance lead to new conflicts?
• Pg 791
Aftermath of War
1. What are the UN and NATO?
2. How did the Allies try to hold the
Axis leaders responsible for the
3. List two causes of the Cold War

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