***9th GRADE CUTOFF*** Topics for Questions 20-25

***9th GRADE CUTOFF***
Topics for Questions 20-25
Scientific Revolution -Sep
Agricultural Revolution - Sep
Enlightenment -Sep
French Revolution - Oct
Industrial Revolution - Nov
Imperialism - Dec/Jan
Nationalism – Nov/Dec
WWI – Causes, Events, Results - Jan
Russian Revolution - Feb
Scientific Revolution
• Just because something was a done a certain way for
a 1000 years doesn’t mean it was done right for 1000
• Galileo
• Copernicus
• Sir Isaac Newton
• Microscope
• Bacteria
• Autopsy
The Church Was Questioned….
About the center of the
About why things fall….
Galieleo’s and Copernicus’ Heliocentric Model
The Church Was Questioned….
About why people get sick…
And why good people die while
bad people live…..
Francis Bacon, Galileo, and Isaac Newton
promoted the idea that knowledge should be
based on
During the Scientific Revolution and the
Enlightenment, one similarity in the work of
many scientists and philosophers was that they
1. the experiences of past civilizations
1. relied heavily on the ideas of medieval
2. experimentation and observation
2. favored an absolute monarchy as a way of
improving economic conditions
3. emotions and feelings
4. the teachings of the Catholic Church
3. received support from the Catholic Church
4. examined natural laws governing the
Which statement best describes the effects of
the works of Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Sir Isaac
Newton, and René Descartes?
1. The acceptance of traditional authority was strengthened.
2. The scientific method was used to solve problems.
3. Funding to education was increased by the English
4. Interest in Greek and Roman drama was renewed
Agricultural Revolution
• Just because something was a done a certain
way for a 1000 years doesn’t mean it was
done right for 1000 years
• Jethro Tull – seed drill
• Scientific Farmers – experiment
• Enclosures = fields where experiments took
• “Less is More”
Less is More…..
Experimentation on Enclosed Farm Fields
Jethro Tull – seed drill
Less Seed = More Crops
Less Fields of Grain = More Grain
• Before a nation can begin to
industrialize, that nation must
first develop
1. a democratic government
2. a rigid class structure
3. a strong religious foundation
4. an adequate food supply
• Positive view of man
• Voltaire = Satire
– Made fun of Monarchs +
• John Locke = Life, Liberty,
– Inspired Thomas Jefferson
and American Revolution
• Rousseau = Social Contract
– “Man is born free yet
everywhere is in chains”
– Majority Rules =Democracy
• Negative view of man
• Hobbes
– Man is selfish
– Monarchs must be absolute
but should care for their
– Enlightened Despots and
Absolute ‘Rulers should Rule
• Montesquieu
– Author “The Prince”
– Favored Absolute Rulers
– Better to be loved out of fear
If People Were Wrong About So
Much… What Else Might We Be Wrong
People Do Not Have To Submit To A Divine King…
People Have Rights And Can Have A Say In Government
Speaker A: Good government stresses the importance
of the nation and accepts the rights of the individual
only if the interests of the individual are the same as
those of the nation.
“We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men
are created equal, that they are endowed by their
creator with certain unalienable rights, that among
these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
Speaker B: The person of the king is sacred and to
attack him in any way is to attack religion itself. The
respect given to a king is religious in nature.
The ideas expressed in the quotation are based primarily
on the writings of
Speaker C: All human beings are born free and equal
with a right to life and liberty. It is the duty of
government to protect these natural rights of its
1. Niccolo Machiavelli
Speaker D: Our goal will not be achieved by democracy
or liberal reforms, but by blood and iron. Only then will
we be successful. No nation achieves greatness or unity
without the traumatic experiences of war.
2. Charles Darwin
3. Charlemagne
4. John Locke
Which speaker’s statement best reflects the ideas of
the Enlightenment?
1. A
2. B
Which statement reflects an argument of Enlightenment
philosophers against the belief in the divine right of kings?
3. C
4. D
1. god has chosen all government rulers
2. independence is built by military might
3. a capitalist economic system is necessary for democracy
4. the power of the government is derived from the
--Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains.
--Everyone has the natural right to life, liberty, and
--Slavery, torture, and religious persecution are wrong.
Which statement best describes a change that occurred
during both the Renaissance and the Enlightenment?
1. feudalism became the dominant political system
During which period in European history would the ideas
in these statements have been expressed?
2. the use of reason and logic were discouraged
3. technology and science were considered
1. Pax Romana
4. a new questioning spirit and attitude emerged
2. Age of Exploration
3. Enlightenment
4. Age of Imperialism
A major concept promoted by philosophers of the
Enlightenment was the need for
1. a return to traditional medieval ideas
2. the use of reason for rational and logical thinking
3. overseas expansion by western European nations
4. strengthening the power of the organized religions
French Revolution
• 3 Stages – The French Poodleution
• Causes
Key Terms: The Estate System, Bourgeoisie, Marie Antoinette, Bread Riots, Tennis
Court Oath, General Assembly
• Reign of Terror
Key Terms: General Assembly, Robespierre, Jacobin Party, Radicals, Enemy of the
State, Guillotine
• Napoleonic Era
Key Terms: Spread the Revolution across Europe, Crowned himself Emperor,
Public Schools, Napoleonic Code (compare: 12 tables, Justinian Code), Invaded
Russia during winter, Vienna Congress
Causes of French Revolution
Poor Leaders
Reign of Terror of French Revolution
Robespierre’s Committee Of Public Safety
Guillotine = Death To
Enemies of the Revolution
Napoleonic Era of French Rev.
The Good
The Ugly
The Bad
Public Schools For
Kids of Poor Citizens
Kills 300K Men Invading
Russia During Winter
Declares Himself Emperor
One important result of the French Revolution was
1. France enjoyed a lengthy period of peace and
2. the church was restored to its former role and
power in the French government
Which statement is a valid generalization about the
immediate results of the French Revolution of
1. the Roman Catholic Church increased its power
and wealth
3. political power shifted to the bourgeoisie
2. the revolution achieved its goal of establishing
peace, democracy, and justice for all
4. France lost its spirit of nationalism
3. the revolution had little impact outside France
4. the French middle class gained more power
In France, which was a major result of the French Revolution?
1. the king was restored to unlimited power
2. the clergy dominated government
3. the middle class gained political influence
4. the tax burden was carried by the lower class
A study of revolutions would most likely lead to the
conclusion that pre-Revolutionary governments
1. are more concerned about human rights than the
governments that replace them
2. refuse to modernize their armed forces with advanced
3. attempt to bring about the separation of government
from religion
4. fail to meet the political and economic needs of their
“Congress of Vienna Restores Monarchy to France”
“Czar Nicholas I Limits Freedom of the Russian Press”
“Reform Movements Crushed in Hungary, Italy, and the
German States”
These headlines could be described as
1. reactions to the French Revolution
2. movements to unify all of western Europe
3. efforts to improve the conditions of factory workers
4. attempts to promote trade between European
The French people supported Napoleon Bonaparte because
they hoped he would
1. adopt the ideas of the Protestant Reformation
2. restore Louis XVI to power
3. provide stability for the nation
4. end British control of France
Global Impact of French Revolution
• Impact on South America, Haiti, Mexico
– Simon Bolivar = Bolivia’s Independence
– Jose de San Martin = Frees most of South America
(Columbia, Peru etc) from Spanish colonial rule
– “Pancho” Villa = Mexican Independence
– Toussaint L’ouverture = Haitian Independence
South American Revolutionaries
Creoles Upset With Encomienda System
Get Support From Slaves and Natives
Haitian Slaves
Led by T’oussaint L’overture
Demand Rights and Revolt
French Revolution
Simon Bolivar and Miguel Hidalgo, leaders of
Latin American independence movements,
were inspired by successful revolutions in
One similarity in the leadership of Latin Americas
Jose de San Martin, Toussaint l’Ouverture,
Bernanrdo O’Higgins, and Pedro I was that each
1. the Untied States and France
1. opposed United States intervention in Haiti
2. the Soviet Union and China
2. led a struggle to gain freedom for the people of
his nation
3. Cuba and Costa Rica
4. Egypt and Kenya
3. opposed membership of his nation in the
League of Nations
4. established an absolute monarchy in his nation
Which of these situations was the direct result of the other
1. nations of Latin America won independence
2. revolutions occurred in North America and France
3. the Napoleonic wars weakened Spain’s power
4. creoles and mestizos became discontented with Spanish
Simon Bolivar, Toussaint L’Overture, and
Bernardo O’Higgins were Latin American leaders
In which region of the world did the American
Revolution and the French Revolution have the
greatest influence during the 1800’s?
1. economic development
1. Southeast Asia
2. educational reforms
2. Latin America
3. independence movements
3. South Asia
4. colonial expansion
Simón Bolívar, José de San Martín, and Toussaint l’Ouverture
are important in Latin American history because they were
1. 20th-century caudillos
2. leaders of liberation movements
3. members of the Organization of American States (OAS)
4. winners of the Nobel Peace Prize
4. sub-Saharan Africa
Industrial Revolution
Industrialization vs Cottage Industry
Capitalism (Factors of Production = Land Labor Capital)
Adam Smith = Author: “The Wealth of Nations”
Supply and Demand
Pros vs Cons
Women’s Rights Better (needed workers)
Labor Unions
Pollution, Overpopulation
Child Labor
• Manchester England
– Urbanization
– Population Density
•Adam Smith = Author: “The Wealth of Nations”
•Supply and Demand
•Factors of Production = Land, Loot, Labor
Pros and Cons of Mass Production
Child Labor
Wealth Gap
Better Products
Which condition is most necessary to the
process of industrialization in a society?
A major result of the Industrial Revolution was
1. dependence on subsistence agriculture
1. concentration of workers in urban areas
2. creation of a one-crop economy
2. increased desire of the wealthy class to
share its power
3. availability of investment capital
4. capture of foreign lands
3. formation of powerful craft guilds
4. control of agricultural production by
-Europeans sought new markets for their goods.
-Many Europeans migrated to the cities in search of jobs.
-European middle class gained political power.
What was the major cause of these changes in Europe?
1. Industrial Revolution
2. rise of feudalism
3. Congress of Vienna
4. French Revolution
• Industrialization fuels need for resources (land, labor, capital) so Mother
Country rapes colonies (COMPARE: MERCANTILISM) and builds an
“Empire” at colonies expense
• Africa
– Key Words: Scramble for Africa (Berlin Conference), White Man’s Burden,
Boer War, The Congo
• India
– Key Words: British East India Company, Sepoy Mutiny, The Raj
• China
– Key Words: Opium Wars, Boxer Rebellion
• Japan
– Key Words: Matthew Perry, Meiji Restoration
• Ireland
– Key Words: Irish Potato Famine, American Immigrants, Catholics vs.
Imperialism In Africa
Making A Mess of A Diverse Land
Which is an accurate statement about the partitioning of
Africa by European imperialist nations during the
1. new nations were based on old tribal boundaries
2. the cultural and ethnic diversity of the African people
was disregarded
3. the continent was divided equally among the
colonial powers
4. African unity was encouraged
After 1880, European nations sought colonies in
Africa primarily because the Europeans were
1. in need of land for their surplus populations
2. competing of raw materials and markets
3. determined to bring Christianity to the
Moslem world
4. interested in completing their geographic
knowledge of the world
The 19th century term “White Man’s Burden” reflects the
idea that
1. Asians and Africans were equal to Europeans
2. Asians and Africans would be grateful for European help
3. imperialism was opposed by most Europeans
4. Europeans had a responsibility to improve the lives of the
colonial peoples
Imperialism In India
Britain Refuses To Lose “Crown Jewel” Trade Colony
East India Company
Ruled India
Sepoy Mutiny = Protest British East India Company Rule
(waterproof bullets wrapped in animal fat = cultural conflict)
Imperialism In China
Failed Attempts to Push “White Devil” OUT
China Loses Opium Wars
European Powers Force China To Open To Trade
Boxer Rebellion Fails
to Force Foreigners Out
The Sepoy Mutiny in India, the Boxer Rebellion in China, and
the Islamic Revolution in Iran were similar in that they
During the 19th century, Europeans were able to
divide China in Spheres of Influence mainly because
1. restored power to the hereditary monarchies
2. attempted to reject the traditional cultures in these
1. Chinese were eager to adopt western culture
3. resisted foreign influence in these countries
2. Europeans had technologically superior military
4. reestablished the power of religious leaders
3. Europeans were willing to adopt Chinese
4. Chinese lacked raw materials and resources
The Boxer Rebellion of the early 20th century was an attempt
1. eliminate poverty among the Chinese peasants
2. bring western-style democracy to China
3. restore trade between China and European nations
4. remove foreign influences from China
If you can’t beat ‘em…. Join em!
Matthew Perry
American Warship Forces Japan Open Ending
Isolation Under Tokugawa Shogun
Strong Central Gov Restored Under Meiji Emperor
Imperialism in Ireland
Irish Leave To Avoid Death – British Don’t Help In Order To Take Vacated Land
British control over South Africa and Ireland,
French control over Indochina, and Spanish
control over Mexico are examples of
1. isolationism
2. appeasement
3. nonalignment
4. imperialism
In Japan, the Meiji Restoration resulted in the
1. division of the nation between the European powers
2. modernization of the nation’s industry
3. abolition of the position of emperor
4. government being controlled by the samurai
The modernization of Japan during the Meiji
Restoration resulted in
1. a return to a feudal system of government
2. the rise of Japan as an imperialistic nation
3. an alliance between China, Korea, Russia,
and Japan
4. a strengthening of Japan’s isolationist
• Loyalty to people of similar Borders, Language,
Culture NOT Loyalty to a King
• COMPARE: Point of view of the colony vs point of
view of the Imperial Country
• Nationalism Unites
– Italy (KW: Red Shirts, Garibaldi, Mazzini, Cavour)
– Germany (KW: Otto Von Bismarck, Blood and Iron)
• Nationalism Divides
– Greece (KW: Lord Byron)
– Yugoslavia (KW: Serbia, The Balkans)
Nationalism Unites Germany
German Speaking Kingdoms Unite
Otto Von Bismarck
“The great issue of the day (German unity)
will be solved not with speeches
but with blood and iron”
Nationalism Unites Italy
Cavour Unites the Kingdoms
Garibaldi and Red Shirt Soldiers
“A country is not merely a geographic territory. A country is
also the idea given birth by the geographic territory. A
country is a sense of love that unites, as one, all the sons and
daughters of that geographic territory…”
--World History: A Story of Progress
Nationalism is most likely to develop in an area
that has
This quotation supports the idea of
1. land suited to agriculture
1. totalitarian rule
2. adequate industry to supply consumer
2. absolute monarchy
3. mercantilism
3. a moderate climate with rivers for irrigation
4. nationalism
4. common customs, language, and history
The best example of the success of nationalism in Europe is
1. development of socialism in France
2. Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
3. establishment of the Common Market
4. unification of Germany
• Long Term Causes
Old Hatreds
Arms Race
Nationalism in the
• Short Term Causes
– Secret Alliances
– Assassination of
Archduke Franz
Ferdinand by a Serbian
• European War
– Mostly fought on European soil
• New Weapons
– kill more people faster
• Russians revolt
– food and gas shortages
• Key Words: Trench Foot, Mustard
Gas, Czar Nicholas of Russia,
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
• Russian Revolution – Russia
drops out of war
• America joins = Fresh troops
• Versailles Treaty = punish
Germany, Ottomans, and AustriaHungary
– Take land away
– Form new countries
– Force losers to pay war repair $
– League of Nations formed but
doesn’t work properly (US prez.
Wilson’s 14 points idea but US does
not join)
• Key words: Bolshevik Revolution,
War Reparations, Creation of
WWI – cause/event/outcome
Archduke Assassinated Triggers Alliance System
Trench War Develops To Avoid New Weapons
Versailles Treaty Punishes Germany
In Eastern Europe (The Balkans) after World War I, the
greatest obstacle to national unity in many nation-states
was the
1. great ethnic diversity found in the region
2. economic dependence of Eastern Europe on Japan
3. acceptance of democratic traditions by most Eastern
A major cause of World War I was
1. a decline in the policy of imperialism
2. the existence of opposing alliances
3. an increase in acts of aggression by England
4. expansion of United States influence in the region
4. the spread of communism throughout
Why was the Balkan region referred to as the “Powder Keg of
Europe” prior to World War I?
The major impact of the Treaty of Versailles on
Germany was that the treaty led to
1. The aggression of the Ottoman Empire was disrupting the
balance of power.
1. an era of peace and international good will in
2. Yugoslavia was invading its neighboring countries.
2. a stable Germany that was both democratic and
3. Nationalistic and imperialistic rivalries were increasing.
4. The area was the leading supplier of military equipment
to the rest of the world.
3. an increase in Germany’s desire to regain its
power and prestige
4. a leadership position for Germany in the League
of Nations
Russian Revolution
• Karl Marx
– Author: The Communist
– Class Struggle (rich take
advantage of poor)
– Bread and Fuel Shortages
• March Revolution
– Overthrow Czar
• V.I. Lenin
– “Peace,Land and Bread”
– Forms Soviets (local labor unions
to run government)
– N.E.P. = New Economic Plan
• Leon Trotsky
– Led Bolshevik Revolution
– White Army vs Red Army
– Forms USSR
• Josef Stalin
Totalitarian Dictator
5 Year Plans
Collective Farms
The Great Purge
Russian Revolution
The Communist Manifesto
•Class Struggle
•Proletariat vs Bourgeoisie
•Czar mistreats the people
•Bread and Fuel Shortages
Josef Stalin
Totalitarian Dictator
5 year plans
Collective Farms
Purge Political Opponents
Vladamir Lenin
Promises: Peace, Land Bread
Organizes Soviets (labor unions)
New Economic Policy = ½ Commuinst and ½ Capitalist
Overthrows Czar in Bolshevik Revolution
A major cause of the Russian Revolution of 1917
was the
The Russian peasants supported the Bolsheviks in
the 1917 Revolutions mainly because the Bolsheviks
promised to
1. defeat of Germany in the Russian campaign
2. marriage of Czar Nicholas II to a German
1. establish collective farms
2. maintain the agricultural price-support system
3. existence of sharp economic differences
between social classes
3. bring modern technology to Russian farms
4. appeal of Marxism to the Russian nobility
4. redistribute the land owned by the nobility
The term that best describes the position of Jews in
Czarist Russia is
1. political elite
2. persecuted minority
3. landed gentry
4. military leaders
“…the organizations of the revolutionaries must consist
first, foremost, and mainly of people who make
revolutionary activity their profession…such an
organization must of necessity be not too extensive and as
secret as possible…”
-V.I. Lenin, 1917
This quotation refers to Lenin’s plan to
1. defeat Germany in World War I
2. establish democracy in Russia
3. maintain communist power in Western Europe
4. overthrow the Russian government
Josef Stalin’s leadership of the Soviet Union can
best be characterized as a period of
Under Josef Stalin, the Soviet Union emphasized
centralized economic planning and Five-Year Plans
primarily to
1. democratic reform and nationalism
2. humanism and democracy
3. religious freedom and tolerance
4. censorship and terror
1. produce more consumer goods
2. expand exports
3. create a demand for high-quality imports
4. develop heavy industry
The political reorganization of Russia after the Communist
Revolution of 1917 resulted in
1. the establishment of a two-party political system
2. increased political power for ethnic minorities
3. a limited monarchy with the czar as a figurehead
4. a federation of socialist republics
Which is generally a characteristic of a communist
1. investment is encouraged by the promise of large
2. the role of government in the economy is restricted by
3. government agencies are involved in production
4. entrepreneurs sell shares in their companies to the

similar documents