Chapter 22 Factors that lead to WWI 1. A system of tangled alliances ▪ 1. Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire ▪ 2. Allied Powers- France, Great Britain, Russia 2. Nationalism ▪ a strong feeling of pride in and loyalty to a nation or ethnic group. 3. Militarism ▪ a policy of glorifying military power and values ▪ Fueled by Imperialism ▪ Leads to a build up of arms (weapons) On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, made an official visit to Sarajevo, the capital of Austria-Hungary's province of Bosnia. Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne Assassins wait in the crowd-Serbian Nationalists Bomb bounces off their car and they continue Finally Gavrillo Princip fires shots at and kills the royal couple Chain reaction- Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia-Russia backs Serbia, Germany declares war on Russia, Britain and France declare war on Germany U.S would not take sides, but offer loans and sell weapons to both sides Most Americans happy- it’s across the pond, doesn’t mean anything to us Helps a slowing down US economy 1/3 the population foreign born Emotional ties to their homeland By end of 1914 Western Front a stalemate War at Sea Britain wants to starve out Germany-blockade ▪ British ships turned back any vessels carrying weapons, food, and other vital supplies to the Central powers—even ships from neutral nations such as the United States. ▪ Wilson doesn’t like it, but US has too much invested in Britain economically German U-boats (Unterseeboot ) ▪ To counter Britain’s blockade Germany develops this new weapon ▪ Early in 1915, Germany declared the waters around Britain a war zone. Within this zone, German U-boats could sink enemy ships without warning (Neutral ships at risk) ▪ Were supposed to search before destroy, but it was impractical with a submarine ▪ On May 7, 1915, a U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania [Lusitania: an unarmed British ocean liner whose sinking by a German U-boat on May 7, 1915, influenced the U.S. decision to enter World War I] without warning. Among the 1,198 dead were 128 Americans ▪ Wilson demands end to unrestricted submarine warfare. ▪ Sussex pledge [Sussex pledge: during World War I, a German promise in 1916 to begin giving advance warning of submarine attacks on ocean liners and to spare the lives of passengers and crew], if The United States must force Britain to end its illegal blockade. Wilson accepted the pledge but would not accept the condition. preparedness movement [preparedness movement: beginning in 1915, before U.S. entry into World War I, a movement led by former president Theodore Roosevelt that called on the government to increase U.S. military strength and convince Americans of the need for U.S. involvement in the war] Wilson wins reelection barely on the slogan “He kept us out of the War” Both sides launch propaganda [propaganda: information or rumors spread by a group or government to promote its cause or ideas or to damage an opposing cause or idea] Allies do a better job As a result, neutrality "in thought" gave way to anti-German feeling in the minds of many Americans. Wilson wants peace without victoryGermany goes all out The Zimmerman Telegram (Note) Britain had gotten hold of a note sent in code by the German foreign minister, Arthur Zimmermann, to the German minister in Mexico. Zimmermann suggested that if the United States entered the war, Mexico and Germany should become allies. Germany would then help Mexico regain "lost territory in New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona." "We intend to begin on the first of February unrestricted submarine warfare. We shall endeavor in spite of this to keep the United States of America neutral. In the event of this not succeeding, we make Mexico a proposal or alliance on the following basis: make war together, make peace together, generous financial support and an understanding on our part that Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. The settlement in detail is left to you. You will inform the President of the above most secretly as soon as the outbreak of war with the United States of America is certain and add the suggestion that he should, on his own initiative, invite Japan to immediate adherence and at the same time mediate between Japan and ourselves. Please call the President's attention to the fact that the ruthless employment of our submarines now offers the prospect of compelling England in a few months to make peace." Signed, ZIMMERMANN. Russian Revolution= Russia out of the fight April 4, 1917, the Senate voted 82 to 6 to declare war on Germany. The House followed on April 6 by a vote of 373 to 50. The United States was going to war. “Neutrality is no longer feasible [practical] . . . where the peace of the world is involved . . . The world must be made safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foundations of political liberty . . . The right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest our hearts—for democracy, for the right of those who submit to authority to have a voice in their own governments.”-WW By going to war we were sure of debt repayment Should the United States have entered WWI?