World War One Nationalism Triumphs in Europe

Report
Huge rush of nationalism in the 1800s
Unified some countries and tore other apart
Germany
a)
b)
c)
I.
II.
Italy
d)
I.
II.
I.
II.
g)
1870 – Nationalism unified the country
Long history of fragmentation will cause problems
Russia
e)
f)
1862-1890 – Otto von Bismarck creates a powerful German
empire
Promotes economy, aggressive foreign policy, domestic reforms
Russian czars reluctantly surrender absolute power
Country will swing between reform and repression
Ethnic groups in Eastern Europe growing restless for
their own nations
Ottoman and Hapsburg empires feel unrest from their
people and begin to fall apart
a) Britain, France, US – reformers seek democratic rights
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
and social change
Reformers try to help laborers
British suffrage is extended to all males, making
women seek the vote too
Defeated during the Franco-Prussian War and Civil
War
France sets up Third Republic government
By 1900, US became world industrial giant
US is magnet for immigrants seeking freedom and
opportunity
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
Age of Imperialism – European powers expand their empires
quickly
Much resistance but brought a lot of the world under their
control
Industrial Revolution gave western powers the means and
motives to seek global domination
With little regard for tradition or native people, European
powers carve up the African continent
Britain, France, Russia take advantage of the crumbling
Ottoman empire
Britain takes over 60% of India
China is taken over by spheres of influence by Western
powers
China tries to resist but is overcome
By early 1900s, leaders in colonized parts were trying to
create nationalist movements
Imperialism results in global exchange
Many nations profit, some are torn apart
Many radical changes in economies and governments
Japan transforms in to a modern nation to ward off
imperialism
e) By 1900, Western powers had claimed and carved up
most of Asia
f) British colonies – Canada, Australia, New Zealand win
independence
g) Latin America struggles to modernize and set up
stable governments
h) Europe forces people to accept western ideas
a)
b)
c)
d)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
1896 – 1st modern Olympic Games held in Athens
Alfred Nobel – inventor of dynamite
Regretted the use of his invention
In his will, set up the Nobel Peace Prize
i.
France and Germany
1) Strong nationalist feelings
2) Germans were proud of their new military
power
3) France wanted to regain its domination
4) Wanted their lost land back from Prussia
ii.
Eastern Europe
1) Russia – state sponsored
nationalism “Pan-Slavism”
2) Austria-Hungry and the Ottoman’s felt
threatened
3) By 1914, the Balkan’s called “powder keg
of Europe”
Imperialism
I.
1)
2)
Economies were growing, new factories
were mass producing products
Europe divided by competition for colonies
Militarism and the Arms Race
II.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
Militarism – glorification of the military
“Survival of the Fittest”
Countries made war seem glorified
Armies and Navies grew huge
Britain and Germany = navy
Military leaders gained political influence
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
Distrust lead powers to sign
treaties
Pledged to help each other
To create massive powers no
one would attack
Triple Alliance 1882 – Italy,
Germany, Austria-Hungry
Became known as Central
Powers
1894 – France and Russia
1904 - France and Britain
created entente
Entente – non-binding
agreement to follow common
policies
Became the Allies
I.
Serbian Outrage
1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand of
Austria-Hungry announced he
would visit Sarajevo, Bosnia
2. Serbian nationalists were
outraged
3. June 28th was Independence
Day – felt that they were being
patronized
4. Serbian group “Black Hand”
vowed to take action
1. Archduke ignored warnings
2. June 28, 1914 road with wife, Sophie thru Sarajevo
3. Gavrilo Princip attacked car, two shots, both dead
1. Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum
2. Ultimatum – final set of demands
3. Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation
and punish Serbian’s that were involved
4. Serbia agreed, partially
5. July 28th – Austria declares war
1. Could have been a small war
2. Alliances caused countries to
join that wouldn’t have
3. Austria-Hungry got help from
Germany
4. Serbia got help from Russia
5. Mobilization – prepare military
forces
6. Russia asked France to help and
avenge loss
7. Germany declared war on
France
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Italy stayed neutral
Britain had to decide
General Alfred von
Schlieffen
Plan to avoid two front war
Defeat France then Russia
Germany invaded Belgium
to get to France
Britain declares war on
Germany
Called “The Great War”
Largest conflict in history
40 million men mobilized
1 in 4 died, ones who lived,
maimed, blind, mad
v. War moved quickly
vi. By September 1914, battle lines were
drawn
vii. Winter brought stalemate
viii. Stalemate – deadlock in which neither
side is able to defeat the other
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
i. Deep trenches across Europe
ii. No Man’s Land – space between
trenches
iii. Covered in shell holes, barbed wire,
dead bodies, land mines
iv. Only gained in small amounts
i. New weapons developed
ii. Could shell from 10 miles away
iii. 1915, German’s started using poison gas – blinded, blistered,
burns
iv. Gas masks to counteract
v. Airplanes – 1,2 seat with machine guns
vi. Automatic machine guns – rapid continuous bullet stream
vii. Submarines – U-Boats, sunk ships without warning
viii. Zeppelins – large gas filled balloons used to bomb
ix. Convoys – groups of merchant ships protected by warships
i.
Eastern Europe
1) Russia pushed though Germany
2) Tannenberg – Russia defeated and retreated
3) Couldn’t fight new weapons
ii. Southern Europe
1) Bulgaria and Italy joined
2) Italy has secret alliance to get Austrian land
iii. War and the Colonies
1) European colonies were drawn into the struggle
2) Allies took over colonies
3) Some forced in to service, others served to get independence
a) Total War
i. Nations channeled all resources in to war effort
ii. Conscription – The Draft, all young men had to be
ready
b) Propaganda War
i. Propaganda – spreading of ideas to promote cause
damaging to other side
ii. Wanted to keep bad news quiet and raise nationalism
c) Impact of Women
i. As men left to fight, women took jobs
ii. Some women became nurses in the war
iii. Most women had to give up jobs when men returned
d) Collapsing Morale
i. By 1917, troops were depressed
ii. Germany was sending 15 year olds in to battle
iii. Many casualties, food shortages, failure to win – upset
people
E. Russian Revolution
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Russia hit hard by war
Food riots lead people to revolt
Monarchy fell apart, Allies were happy czar fell
V.I. Lenin came to power
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany – ended war for
Russia
F. Impact on War
i.
With Russia gone, Germany concentrated on Western
Front
i. 1917 – US joins war
ii. Germany was using U-Boats and sinking American
ships
iii. Killed many civilians especially on the Lusitania
iv. Americans supported the Allies since they came from
Allied countries
B. Zimmerman Note
i.
US intercepted note from
German minister
ii. Promised Mexico land
they lost if they helped
Germany
iii. Published, Americans got
mad
C. Declaring War
i.
April 1917 Pres Wilson
asked congress to declare
war
ii. Took year to Europe
D. Fourteen Points
i. January 1918, Fourteen Points Speech
ii. Freedom of seas, free trade, reduction of arms
iii. Wanted great association of nations
E. Campaign to Victory
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
Early 1918 – final battles fought
German’s overthrew government
Other countries were getting tired
Armistice – Agreement to end fighting
Germany and Allies at 11am on November 11, 1918
i. 8.5 million people were dead
ii. Influenza pandemic killed 20 million around the world
iii. Most of Europe had to be rebuilt from shelling
damage
iv. Countries had huge war debt
v. Reparations – payment for war damage
vi. Governments collapsed, revolutionaries took over
vii. Colonies fought back against imperialism for
independence
i.
Big Three
1.
2.
3.
4.
US President Woodrow Wilson
British PM George
French Pres Clemenceau
No one likes it Wilson’s points
ii. Difficult Issues
1.
2.
Countries wanted land back that was
taken from them
Wilson got his international peace
group, League of Nations
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
June 1919 – met with new German Republic to sign
treaty
Read document with horror
Forced Germany to pay for the whole war ($30 billion)
Reduce army and return lands
Forced to sign treaty – would cause resentment for
years

Write a 4-5 sentence summary about World
War I.
 What is nationalism?
 What event started the war?
 What were new technology developed during the
war?
 How did the war end?

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