Huge rush of nationalism in the 1800s Unified some countries and tore other apart Germany a) b) c) I. II. Italy d) I. II. I. II. g) 1870 – Nationalism unified the country Long history of fragmentation will cause problems Russia e) f) 1862-1890 – Otto von Bismarck creates a powerful German empire Promotes economy, aggressive foreign policy, domestic reforms Russian czars reluctantly surrender absolute power Country will swing between reform and repression Ethnic groups in Eastern Europe growing restless for their own nations Ottoman and Hapsburg empires feel unrest from their people and begin to fall apart a) Britain, France, US – reformers seek democratic rights b) c) d) e) f) g) and social change Reformers try to help laborers British suffrage is extended to all males, making women seek the vote too Defeated during the Franco-Prussian War and Civil War France sets up Third Republic government By 1900, US became world industrial giant US is magnet for immigrants seeking freedom and opportunity a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Age of Imperialism – European powers expand their empires quickly Much resistance but brought a lot of the world under their control Industrial Revolution gave western powers the means and motives to seek global domination With little regard for tradition or native people, European powers carve up the African continent Britain, France, Russia take advantage of the crumbling Ottoman empire Britain takes over 60% of India China is taken over by spheres of influence by Western powers China tries to resist but is overcome By early 1900s, leaders in colonized parts were trying to create nationalist movements Imperialism results in global exchange Many nations profit, some are torn apart Many radical changes in economies and governments Japan transforms in to a modern nation to ward off imperialism e) By 1900, Western powers had claimed and carved up most of Asia f) British colonies – Canada, Australia, New Zealand win independence g) Latin America struggles to modernize and set up stable governments h) Europe forces people to accept western ideas a) b) c) d) i. ii. iii. iv. 1896 – 1st modern Olympic Games held in Athens Alfred Nobel – inventor of dynamite Regretted the use of his invention In his will, set up the Nobel Peace Prize i. France and Germany 1) Strong nationalist feelings 2) Germans were proud of their new military power 3) France wanted to regain its domination 4) Wanted their lost land back from Prussia ii. Eastern Europe 1) Russia – state sponsored nationalism “Pan-Slavism” 2) Austria-Hungry and the Ottoman’s felt threatened 3) By 1914, the Balkan’s called “powder keg of Europe” Imperialism I. 1) 2) Economies were growing, new factories were mass producing products Europe divided by competition for colonies Militarism and the Arms Race II. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Militarism – glorification of the military “Survival of the Fittest” Countries made war seem glorified Armies and Navies grew huge Britain and Germany = navy Military leaders gained political influence i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. Distrust lead powers to sign treaties Pledged to help each other To create massive powers no one would attack Triple Alliance 1882 – Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungry Became known as Central Powers 1894 – France and Russia 1904 - France and Britain created entente Entente – non-binding agreement to follow common policies Became the Allies I. Serbian Outrage 1. Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungry announced he would visit Sarajevo, Bosnia 2. Serbian nationalists were outraged 3. June 28th was Independence Day – felt that they were being patronized 4. Serbian group “Black Hand” vowed to take action 1. Archduke ignored warnings 2. June 28, 1914 road with wife, Sophie thru Sarajevo 3. Gavrilo Princip attacked car, two shots, both dead 1. Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum 2. Ultimatum – final set of demands 3. Serbia must end all anti-Austrian agitation and punish Serbian’s that were involved 4. Serbia agreed, partially 5. July 28th – Austria declares war 1. Could have been a small war 2. Alliances caused countries to join that wouldn’t have 3. Austria-Hungry got help from Germany 4. Serbia got help from Russia 5. Mobilization – prepare military forces 6. Russia asked France to help and avenge loss 7. Germany declared war on France 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Italy stayed neutral Britain had to decide General Alfred von Schlieffen Plan to avoid two front war Defeat France then Russia Germany invaded Belgium to get to France Britain declares war on Germany Called “The Great War” Largest conflict in history 40 million men mobilized 1 in 4 died, ones who lived, maimed, blind, mad v. War moved quickly vi. By September 1914, battle lines were drawn vii. Winter brought stalemate viii. Stalemate – deadlock in which neither side is able to defeat the other i. ii. iii. iv. i. Deep trenches across Europe ii. No Man’s Land – space between trenches iii. Covered in shell holes, barbed wire, dead bodies, land mines iv. Only gained in small amounts i. New weapons developed ii. Could shell from 10 miles away iii. 1915, German’s started using poison gas – blinded, blistered, burns iv. Gas masks to counteract v. Airplanes – 1,2 seat with machine guns vi. Automatic machine guns – rapid continuous bullet stream vii. Submarines – U-Boats, sunk ships without warning viii. Zeppelins – large gas filled balloons used to bomb ix. Convoys – groups of merchant ships protected by warships i. Eastern Europe 1) Russia pushed though Germany 2) Tannenberg – Russia defeated and retreated 3) Couldn’t fight new weapons ii. Southern Europe 1) Bulgaria and Italy joined 2) Italy has secret alliance to get Austrian land iii. War and the Colonies 1) European colonies were drawn into the struggle 2) Allies took over colonies 3) Some forced in to service, others served to get independence a) Total War i. Nations channeled all resources in to war effort ii. Conscription – The Draft, all young men had to be ready b) Propaganda War i. Propaganda – spreading of ideas to promote cause damaging to other side ii. Wanted to keep bad news quiet and raise nationalism c) Impact of Women i. As men left to fight, women took jobs ii. Some women became nurses in the war iii. Most women had to give up jobs when men returned d) Collapsing Morale i. By 1917, troops were depressed ii. Germany was sending 15 year olds in to battle iii. Many casualties, food shortages, failure to win – upset people E. Russian Revolution i. ii. iii. iv. v. Russia hit hard by war Food riots lead people to revolt Monarchy fell apart, Allies were happy czar fell V.I. Lenin came to power Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany – ended war for Russia F. Impact on War i. With Russia gone, Germany concentrated on Western Front i. 1917 – US joins war ii. Germany was using U-Boats and sinking American ships iii. Killed many civilians especially on the Lusitania iv. Americans supported the Allies since they came from Allied countries B. Zimmerman Note i. US intercepted note from German minister ii. Promised Mexico land they lost if they helped Germany iii. Published, Americans got mad C. Declaring War i. April 1917 Pres Wilson asked congress to declare war ii. Took year to Europe D. Fourteen Points i. January 1918, Fourteen Points Speech ii. Freedom of seas, free trade, reduction of arms iii. Wanted great association of nations E. Campaign to Victory i. ii. iii. iv. v. Early 1918 – final battles fought German’s overthrew government Other countries were getting tired Armistice – Agreement to end fighting Germany and Allies at 11am on November 11, 1918 i. 8.5 million people were dead ii. Influenza pandemic killed 20 million around the world iii. Most of Europe had to be rebuilt from shelling damage iv. Countries had huge war debt v. Reparations – payment for war damage vi. Governments collapsed, revolutionaries took over vii. Colonies fought back against imperialism for independence i. Big Three 1. 2. 3. 4. US President Woodrow Wilson British PM George French Pres Clemenceau No one likes it Wilson’s points ii. Difficult Issues 1. 2. Countries wanted land back that was taken from them Wilson got his international peace group, League of Nations i. ii. iii. iv. v. June 1919 – met with new German Republic to sign treaty Read document with horror Forced Germany to pay for the whole war ($30 billion) Reduce army and return lands Forced to sign treaty – would cause resentment for years Write a 4-5 sentence summary about World War I. What is nationalism? What event started the war? What were new technology developed during the war? How did the war end?