Industrial Revolution Lesson #2 - North Clackamas School District

The Industrial Revolution
North Clackamas School District Social
Studies Priority Standards:
 HK
2. Analyze the complexity and
investigate causes and effects of
significant events in World
I Can define and explain in writing the
following key concepts:
The “Putting Out System”
Water Wheel
Your K.I.M. vocabulary
is detailed and
complete (including
memory device).
Critical thinking
answers and summary
paragraph are
detailed, clear and
accurate with specific
supporting details in
complete sentences.
Your K.I.M. vocabulary
is complete (including
memory device). Critical
thinking answers and
summary paragraph are
clear and accurate with
specific supporting
details in complete
Your K.I.M. vocabulary is
complete . (including
memory device). Critical
thinking answers and
summary paragraph are
accurate with minimum
supporting details in
complete sentences.
Your K.I.M. vocabulary
is complete –”sloppy”,
thinking answers and
summary paragraph are
and accurate with little
supporting details in
complete sentences.
Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution (beginning in England
during the 18th century): society shifted from
using tools to make products by hand to using
new sources of energy, such as coal, to power
machines to produce products in factories.
The Start of the Industrial Revolution
By 1750, the Agricultural Revolution had
led to a large increase in Europe’s
About 93% of the people of Europe lived
in rural areas.
New innovations revolutionized
People began emigrating from rural to
urban areas searching for economic
Advances in medicine, hygiene and
agriculture improved the quality and
length of people’s lives.
London in 1440 and 1840
Urbanization and
changed the
architecture and
way of life in
Right: London
1140 and 1840,
from Pugin’s
published 1836.
The process in
which more
people move to
From the Country to the City
• The population of England
rose slowly, by less than
two million people, during
the 100 years from 1700
to 1800.
The population then
increased sharply from
1801 to 1901, increasing
by over 22 million.
Many people moved into
the cities looking for
Population of England
1700 – 1901
1700 – 1800-------------------------1900
Major Factors Existing in England That Contributed to
Large supplies of coal and iron.
A large number of people willing
and able to work.
Many engineers and innovators.
Large amount of wealth from
A stable government supporting
1)Government encouraged innovation and
the spread of global trade.
2)The government created patent laws
that allowed inventors to benefit
financially from the “intellectual property”
of their inventions.
3)The British government also encouraged
global trade by expanding the Navy to
protect trade and granting monopolies and
other financial incentives to companies so
they would explore the world to find
Manufacturing Regions
The Putting-Out System
The "putting-out system" was a
way for 18th-century businesses to
contract workers from their homes;
an example of cottage industry.
Different parts of a product were
made in the home, collected, and
then assembled at a central location.
The main products of this system
were textiles, locks, guns, and iron
goods such as pots, pans, and pins.
In the cottage textile industry, for
example, the entire family was
involved in cotton yarn production:
^Children would sort the cotton
fibers in a process called carding.
^Women would spin the fibers
into threads.
^Men would weave the threads
into fabric.
Urbanization in England
By 1750, large
numbers of workers
had begun to move
into urban areas.
This provided a large
pool of workers for
factory labor.
Distribution of
Population in
England, 1750
More factories
encouraged more
workers to move to
the cities, and more
workers attracted
more industry.
Mercantilism and the Navigation Acts
• Mercantilism was an economic
theory that argued that nations
acquire wealth by exporting
more than they import.
The value of imports and
exports, called the balance of
trade, was measured in gold
and silver bullion (bars). [omit
(silver or gold).]
Governments passed trade
laws encouraging companies to
export while limiting imports
through tariffs (import taxes).
The English Navigation Acts
were a result of mercantile
The acts allowed only ships of
the United Kingdom to trade
directly with England.
Gold Bullion
Warring British and Dutch Fleets
Anglo-Dutch Wars
• The Navigation Acts caused tension between the
Netherlands and England.
• The British and Dutch competed to control ocean trade.
• There were four Anglo-Dutch Wars from 1652 to 1784.
• The wars were fought entirely at sea.
• In the end the English gained control of Dutch trade
routes, and thus global trade.
Dutch Victory, 1667
Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
Seven Years’ War 1756–1763
The Seven Years’ War involved all of the major European powers.
Britain and France were enemies during the war.
Battles were fought in India, North America, Europe, the
Caribbean islands, the Philippines and coastal Africa.
Great Britain, victorious in the war, gained a large number of
French colonies, including India, Canada, and Senegal.
The result, again, was that the British gained even great control
over global trade.
French Colonies in America, India, and Senegal
Trading with the
• Mercantilism was
successful for England.
• England could trade
with all of her colonies
without restrictions or
England held a
monopoly on commerce
in her colonies.
Nearly half of England's
exports went to the
American colonies.
England’s merchant
fleet and navy grew to
be the largest in the
England saw itself as
the center of the world!
England saw itself as the center of the world!
England had the widest global trade network of colonies.
English Trade Routes of 1700
During the Industrial Revolution, European
manufacturing dominated world markets, and
England dominated them all.
Relative Share of World Manufacturing Output: 1750 to 1900
Cotton and India
• In the 1600s, imported cotton
from India became popular in
• Prior to 1600, wool was the
most common textile in
• English wool manufacturers
convinced Parliament to pass a
law banning cotton cloth
imported from India.
The Water Wheel
• A water wheel is a means of converting the kinetic energy of
flowing water into mechanical energy to operate machines.
•Water wheels were primarily used to power grist mills for
making flour.
• During the Industrial Revolution, Richard Arkwright used
the water wheel to spin cotton thread.
• Later, water wheels were adapted to run many spinning
machines and looms.
• The most powerful water wheel built in the United Kingdom
was the 100 hp water wheel at Quarry Bank Mill.
Water Wheels
Factory Falls in Lowell
Water Wheel on the Orontes
River in Syria
Water Wheel in New Lanark,
David Dale, New Lanark, and Highland Clearances
• Many new textile mills were started using the
water wheel. New towns grew up around the mills.
•Established in 1786 by David Dale, a Scottish
merchant and businessman.
• Dale offered employment to poor Scottish
Highlanders who had had their land taken from
them by the "Highland Clearances."
David Dale
New Lanark
Lancashire County
❖Much of the innovation
for the United Kingdom’s
Industrial Revolution came
out of Lancashire County,
which included the cities
of Manchester and
❖Lancashire is located in
northern England.
❖The county has a cool,
moist climate that was
ideal for cotton spinning.
❖It also has many natural
streams to provide water
Industrial Revolution
Partner Book Review:
Skim pages 258-262.
Answer questions 1-4 on page 262.
Turn in your answers directly to me
On a separate piece of paper please!

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