AssemblyLanguage01

Report
I
Prof. Muhammad Saeed
1/27/2015
Computer Architecture & Assembly
Language
2
Moor’s Law
"The number of transistors
incorporated in a chip will
approximately double every 24
months."
END
Comparison Of CISC & RISC Technologies
CISC
RISC
Emphasis on hardware
Emphasis on software
Includes multi-clock
complex instructions
Single-clock,
reduced instruction only
Memory-to-memory:
"LOAD" and "STORE"
incorporated in instructions
Register to register:
"LOAD" and "STORE"
are independent instructions
Small code sizes,
high cycles per second
Low cycles per second,
large code sizes
Transistors used for storing
complex instructions
Spends more transistors
on memory registers
Intel 4004
First single-chip microprocessor
Year
1971
Clock Speed
740 KHz
No. Of Transistors
2300 at 10 m
MIPS
0.07
Register Length
4-bit
Data Bus Length
4-bit
Address Memory
640 bytes
Intel 8008
Year
1972
Clock Speed
800 KHz
No. Of Transistors
3500 at 10 m
MIPS
0.05
Register Length
8-bit
Data Bus Length
8-bit
Address Memory
16 kb
Intel 8086
Year
1978
Clock Speed
5MHz
No. Of Transistors
29000 at 3 m
MIPS
0.33
Register Length
16-bit
Data Bus Length
16-bit
Address Memory
1 MB
Intel 8088
Year
1979
Clock Speed
5MHz
No. Of Transistors
29000 at 3 m
MIPS
0.33
Register Length
16-bit
Data Bus Length Ext
8-bit
Address Memory
1 MB
Intel 80286
Year
1982
Clock Speed
6-25MHz
No. Of Transistors
134000 at 1.5 m
MIPS
0.9-2.66
Register Length
16-bit
Data Bus Length
16-bit
Addressable Memory
16 MB
Intel 80386DX
Year
1985
Clock Speed
16-33MHz
No. Of Transistors
275000 at 1 m
MIPS
5-9.9
Register Length
32-bit
Data Bus Length
32-bit
Addressable Memory
4GB
Intel 80486DX
Includes Math Coprocessor and Cache
Year
1989
Clock Speed
25-50MHz
No. Of Transistors
1.2million at 1-0.8 m
MIPS
11.1 MIPS at 33 MHz
Register Length
32-bit
Data Bus Length
32-bit
Addressable Memory
4GB
Intel Pentium 1
Includes data and Instruction Caches(8k)
Year
1993
Clock Speed
60-200MHz
No. Of Transistors
3.1-5.5million at .8-.35 m
MIPS
100-270
Register Length
32-bit
Data Bus Length
64-bit
Addressable Memory
4GB
Intel Pentium
MMX Technology
The MMX technology consists of three improvements over the non-MMX Pentium
microprocessor:
 57 new microprocessor instructions have been added that
are designed to handle video, audio, and graphical data
more efficiently.
 A new process, Single Instruction Multiple Data ( SIMD ),
makes it possible for one instruction to perform the same
operation on multiple data items.
 The memory cache on the microprocessor has increased to
32 thousand bytes, meaning fewer accesses to memory that
is off the microprocessor.
32-Bit MMX and XMM Registers
MMX Registers: MMX technology improves the performance
of Intel processors when implementing advanced multimedia
and communications applications. The eight 64-bit MMX
registers support special instructions called SIMD (SingleInstruction, Multiple-Data). As the name implies, MMX
instructions operate in parallel on the data values contained in
MMX registers.
XMM Registers:
The x86 architecture also contains eight 128-bit registers called
XMM registers. They are used by streaming SIMD extensions to
the instruction set.
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Intel Pentium II
Includes data and Instruction Caches(8k)
Year
1997
Clock Speed
450MHz
No. Of Transistors
7.5million at .35-.25 m
MIPS
100-112
Register Length
32-bit
Data Bus Length
64-bit
Addressable Memory
4GB
541 MIPS at 200 MHz
Intel Pentium III
Year
1999
Clock Speed
600MHz
No. Of Transistors
9.5million at .35-.25 m
MIPS
2,054 MIPS at 600 MHz
Register Length
32-bit
Data Bus Length
64-bit
Addressable Memory
64G B
Intel Pentium IV
Year
2000-2008
Clock Speed
1.3GHz
No. Of Transistors
55 million at 13 nm
MIPS
9,726 MIPS at 3.2 GHz
Register Length
32-bit
Data Bus Length
64-bit
Addressable Memory
64G B
Intel Pentium D 840
Series(800-900)
Year
2005
Clock Speed
2.8GHz
No. Of Transistors
230 million at 0.09 μm
MIPS
Register Length
64-bit
Data Bus Length
64-bit
Addressable Memory
64 GB
Cores (800 and 900 series)
2
Intel i7
Year
2008
Clock Speed
3.2 GHz
No. Of Transistors
731,000,000 45 nm-14nm
MIPS
298,190 MIPS at 3.0 GHz
Register Length
64-bit
Data Bus Length
64-bit
Addressable Memory
64GB
Intel Chipset Block Diagram
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Block Diagram of a Microcomputer
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Simplified CPU Block Diagram
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32-Bit General Purpose Registers
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General Purpose Registers
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Floating Point Unit Registers
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32 bit EFlags Register
32-bit EFlags Register Explained-I
15
14
0
NT
13
12
IOPL
11 10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OF DF
IF
TF
SF
ZF
0
AF
0
PF
1
CF
19
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ID
VIP VIF AC
17
16
VM RF
0. CF : Carry Flag. Set if the last arithmetic operation carried (addition) or
borrowed (subtraction) a bit beyond the size of the register. This is
then checked when the operation is followed with an add-with-carry
or subtract-with-borrow to deal with values too large for just one
register to contain.
2. PF : Parity Flag. Set if the number of set bits in the least significant byte is
a multiple of 2.
4. AF : Adjust Flag. (Auxiliary Carry Flag)Carry of Binary Code Decimal (BCD)
numbers arithmetic operations.
6. ZF : Zero Flag. Set if the result of an operation is Zero (0).
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32-bit EFlags Register Explained-II
15
14
0
NT
13
12
IOPL
11 10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OF DF
IF
TF
SF
ZF
0
AF
0
PF
1
CF
19
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ID
VIP VIF AC
17
16
VM RF
7. SF : Sign Flag. Set if the result of an operation is negative.
8. TF : Trap Flag. Set if step by step debugging.
9. IF : Interruption Flag. Set if interrupts are enabled.
10. DF : Direction Flag. Stream direction. If set, string operations will
decrement their pointer rather than incrementing it, reading
memory backwards.
11. OF : Overflow Flag. Set if signed arithmetic operations result in a value
too large for the register to contain.
12-13. IOPL : I/O Privilege Level field (2 bits). I/O Privilege Level of the
current process.
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32-bit EFlags Register Explained-III
15
14
0
NT
13
12
IOPL
11 10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
OF DF
IF
TF
SF
ZF
0
AF
0
PF
1
CF
19
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
18
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
ID
VIP VIF AC
17
16
VM RF
14. NT : Nested Task flag. Controls chaining of interrupts. Set if the
current process is linked to the next process.
16. RF : Resume Flag. Response to debug exceptions.
17. VM : Virtual-8086 Mode. Set if in 8086 compatibility mode.
18. AC : Alignment Check. Set if alignment checking of memory
references is done.
19. VIF : Virtual Interrupt Flag. Virtual image of IF.
20. VIP : Virtual Interrupt Pending flag. Set if an interrupt is
pending.
21. ID : Identification Flag. Support for CPUID instruction if can be set.
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64-bit RFlags Register
Higher 32 bits are reserved,
lower 32 bits are the same
as 32-Bit EFlags Register.
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Essential Features Of 64-Bit Processor
 It is backward-compatible with the x86 instruction set.
 Addresses are 64 bits long, allowing for a virtual address
space of size 264 bytes. In current chip implementations,
only the lowest 48 bits are used.
 It can use 64-bit general-purpose registers, allowing
instructions to have 64-bit integer operands.
 It uses eight more general-purpose registers than the x86.
 It uses a 48-bit physical address space, which supports up
to 256 terabytes of RAM.
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General
Purpose
Registers
16-64 Bits
Sixteen 128-bit
XMM registers
Memory - I
• VOLATILE and DYNAMIC
• ROM is permanently burned into a chip and cannot be erased.
• EPROM can be erased slowly with ultraviolet light and reprogrammed.
• DRAM, commonly known as main memory, is where programs and data
are kept when a program is running. It is inexpensive, but must be
refreshed every millisecond to avoid losing its contents. Some systems
use ECC (error checking and correcting) memory.
• SRAM is used primarily for expensive, high-speed cache memory. It does
not have to be refreshed. CPU cache memory is comprised of SRAM.
• VRAM holds video data. It is dual ported, allowing one port to continuously
refresh the display while another port writes data to the display.
• CMOS RAM on the system motherboard stores system setup information. It is
refreshed by a battery, so its contents are retained when the computer’s
power is off.
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Memory - II (Cache Memory-I)
Caches function as read and write caches when they are involved in
the transfer of data from a faster device to a slower device. It allows you
send information and then undertake a new task while it translates the
data.
 L1 cache, which stands for Level 1 cache, primary cache, is a type
of small and fast memory that is built into the central processing unit.
 L2 cache, L2, or Level 2, cache is used to store recently accessed
information. Also known as secondary cache, it is designed to reduce
the time needed to access data in cases where data has already
been accessed previously. It is slower than L1. It may or may not be
in the CPU.
 L3 cache, or Level 3, cache is a memory cache that is built into the
motherboard. It is used to feed the L2 cache, and is typically faster
than the system’s main memory, but still slower than the L2 cache.
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Memory - II (Cache Memory-II)
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Memory - II (Cache Memory-III)
L1
L1
L1
Core 1
Core 2
Core 1
L2
L1
Core 2
L2
L 2 Cache
L1
Core 3
L1
L1
Core 4
A quad-core chip with shared L2 Cache
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Core 3
L2
L1
Core 4
L2
A quad-core chip with separate L2 Cache
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Memory - II (Cache Memory-IV)
Microprocessor
Registers
L1 Cache
Memory Bus
Bigger
Faster
L2 Cache
Memory
I/O Bus
Disk, Tape, etc
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Processor Modes
 Real Mode:
A processor running in real mode acts like 8088. It
accesses memory with the same restrictions of the original 8088: a limit of
1 MB of addressable RAM, and it doesn't take advantage of the full 32-bit
processing of modern CPUs. All processors have this real mode available.
 Protected Mode:
•
•
•
•

Full access to all of the system's memory.
Ability to multitask.
Support for virtual memory.
32-bit processing
Virtual Real Mode: It emulates real mode from within protected
mode, allowing DOS programs to run. A protected mode operating
system such as Windows can in fact create multiple virtual real mode
machines, each of which appear to the software running them as if they
are the only software running on the machine. Each virtual machine gets
its own 1 MB address space, an image of the real hardware BIOS
routines, everything.
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Pipelining and Scalability
Execute
Unit
Holding
Buffer
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Execute
Unit
Execute
Unit
40
Pipelining and Scalability
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Ports
 Device port.
 Serial Port.
 Parallel Port
 USB (Universal Serial Bus)
The computer acts as the host.
Up to 127 devices can connect to the host, either
directly or by way of USB hubs.
Individual USB cables can run as long as 5 meters; with hubs,
devices can be up to 30 meters.
With USB 2.0,the bus has a maximum data rate of 480
megabits per second . With USB 3.0, data rate is 5 gbits/sec.
While USB 2.0 can only send data in one direction at a time,
USB 3.0 can transmit data in both directions simultaneously.
USBs of >1 TB capacity are available.
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BUS
 A bus is a collection of traces
Traces are thin electrical connections that
transport information between hardware
devices
 A port is a bus that connects exactly two
devices
 An I/O channel is a bus shared by several
devices to perform I/O operations
• Handle I/O independently of the system’s
main processors
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8088 Block
Diagram
44
Instruction Execution Cycle
Fetch the next operation
• Place it in the queue
• Update the program counter
Decode the Instruction
• Perform address translation
• Fetch Operands from memory
Execute the Instruction
• Perform the required calculation
• Store results in memory or registers
• Set status flags attached to the CPU
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Memory Address
 Segment Address
0EBD
 Offset Address
00AC
 Logical Address
Segment:Offset
0EBD:00AC
 Physical Address
segment x 16 + offset
0EBD x 10h + 00AC
0EBD0 + 00AC = 0EC7C
 Flat Address
32-Bit: FF0084C5
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Memory Address
Global Descriptor Table (GDT) A single GDT is created when
the operating system switches the processor into protected
mode during boot up. Its base address is held in the GDTR
(global descriptor table register). The table contains entries
(called segment descriptors) that point to segments. The
operating system has the option of storing the segments used
by all programs in the GDT.
Local Descriptor Tables (LDT) In a multitasking operating
system, each task or program is usually assigned its own table
of segment descriptors, called an LDT. The LDTR register
contains the address of the program’s LDT. Each segment
descriptor contains the base address of a segment within the
linear address space. This segment is usually distinct from all
other segments
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Memory Address
Three different logical addresses are shown, each
selecting a different entry in the LDT. In this figure we
assume that paging is disabled, so the linear address
space is also the physical address space.
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Block Diagram Of Pentium
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END

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