Chapter 3 Review What is the difference between acculturation and enculturation? What is ethnocentrism? What is a possible benefit of cultural clash? Improving cultural understanding—how? Chapter 3 - Communication, Culture, and Identity Chapter 4 Recap/Lecture What is verbal communication? Written Face-to-face Use of words to communicate message Part of communicating effectively Relationship to interpersonal communication? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8hGDlifwhg Use of Symbols Language = System of Symbols Words = Verbal Symbols Grammar = Rules for use of words/symbols Encoding and Decoding – difference? Verbal symbols…. Are symbolic Impacted by culture? Evolve Over time Because of technology Examples? Vary in level of abstraction Can be intentional (strategic ambiguity, equivocation “You are always so kind to me! Thanks for the gift!”, euphemisms “Pardon me while I run to the powder room.” ) Verbal symbols … Have denotative and connotative meaning Difference? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2F-ayEU3DBU What are the denotative meanings of these words? What could be the connotative meanings? Hot Scrub Crazy Bad Jumping Thirsty Swag Verbal symbols….are powerful Positively Building relationships Inclusion Confirmation Problem solving Negatively Static Evaluation Polarizaion Reifiicaion Muting Sexist language Racist language Homophobic language Albeist language Group Chat The Power of Language. Complete the slip of paper on the power of language. Have a discussion with your group. Discuss how those words would negatively impact interpersonal communication ○ (e.g. if used, would you continue to communicate? Change the way you communicate? Change your perceptions of that person?) At end of discussion, on back of your slip— what did you learn? Any word surprise you? Altered any of your current views? Improving Verbal Communication Perspective taking I-Messages Understanding ladder of abstraction Indexing Probing middle ground Sex and Gender Two-culture theory Some argue: Women use: more rapport talk, modifiers, polite talk Also align those traits with femininity Debate over if difference exist Application Exercise Application Exercise #3 (Worth 10 points): There’s a current debate over if there is a difference between the way men and women communicate verbally. Observe a conversation between a male and female (either out in public or on a television show). Focus on their verbal communication. What differences do you notice in terms of the way each sex communicated with each other? How did these differences (or similarities) appear to impact interpersonal communication? Also discuss examples of how the two sexes communicated on an interpersonal level by reflecting on some of the terms you learned this chapter (e.g. connotative vs. denotative meaning, other factors impacting their use of symbols, their use of verbal symbols in positive or negative ways). Did your findings align with how you feel about the current debate? Must use terminology from the text. Can include as paragraphs or as lists (of sentences and short phrases—not 2 words). Must be typed. Culture and Ethnicity Theories to help understand Symbolic interactionism Sapir-Whorf hypothesis ○ Linguistic determinism ○ Linguistic relativity Phatic communication Code switching Codabiliy Speech communities Idioms How do we use idioms in the US? Generation Differences based on Shared experiences New technologies (or lack thereof) Co-culture Context Determines appropriateness e.g. “Shut up” Consider all elements in environment, such as: Situation Time Relationship Nonverbal cues ○ Relationship between verbal and nonverbal ○ Will discuss with Chapter 5 Food for thought Consider the role of verbal communication: How difficult would it be to have interpersonal communication without using verbal communication? Let’s play our version of CHARADES and see!