I See You, You See Me - LiteracyAccess Online

Report
“I See You, You See Me”
Video Modeling and Video Self-Modeling as an
Intervention Strategy for Young Children
Teresa Cogar M.Ed.
Coordinator, Region 5 T/TAC
Modeling/Learning Behaviors
• Human behavior is primarily learned by
observing and modeling others.
• Observational learning is a cognitive and
behavioral change that occurs as a result of
observing others engaged in similar actions
(Bandura, 1986)
Instructional Practice
• Having students imitate modeled behaviors
has long been a mainstay of instructional
practice (Buggey,2007)
What is Video Modeling?
• A procedure in which a learner is shown a videotape
of a model performing a target behavior or
completing a desired task (Sigafoos, O’Reilly & de la Cruz, 2007)
Video Modeling Formats
• Peer - Using a child or adult “actor” to demonstrate
the target skill or act out an exchange. These people
can be familiar or unfamiliar.
•
Point-of-View - Activities are carried out from the
viewer’s perspective by holding camera at eye level.
Hine & Wolery, 2006
Peer/Adult Review Video
Peers as Models
• Most effective models include individuals:
– close to the observers age
– who have similar characteristics (gender,
personality, race and mood
– are functioning only slightly above the observer
Point of View Modeling
• Filming video from the perspective of what the
student would see, hear, and say in the targeted
situations.
Avery Video
Benefits of Video as an Instructional
Medium
• Moving visual image that can be readily produced
• Ability to gain attention
• Interactively controlled
• Creates a personal involvement
• Focuses attention on important elements of modeled
behavior and ensures that these elements are relevant and
within the capacity of the individual
Self-Efficacy
• “A person has a greater chance of learning a
behavior and gaining a perception of selfcompetence, when he/she perceives a greater chance
of success or self-efficacy.” (Bandura, 1982)
Video Modeling Research
• Researchers have found that video modeling allows
children to take what they have learned in video
modeling sessions and generalize that information
into all aspects of their daily life.
Research Says……..
- Video modeling is considered evidence based practice.
Bellini and Akullian (2007)
- It has been successful for improving play behavior,
conversation skills, self‐help skills and (less studied)
behavioral skills.
- It is more effective than in vivo modeling.
Who is a good candidate for this
strategy?
• Visual learners (ASD, auditory processing
issues, language delay)
• • Has demonstrated imitation skills: motor
movements during action sequences on TV,
words, songs, etc.
• • Loves to watch videos
Candidates…
• Thos who prefer visual stimuli (Kinney et al., 2003)
• Children that need a way to learn through
social models without initial face-to face
interactions (I.E. Students with ASD)
• Children who benefit from visually cued
instruction
• Individuals that exhibit strengths in processing
visual rather than verbal information
From “Video Modeling: Why does it work
for children with autism?” by Corbett &
Abdullah, 2005
Two Prerequisites to Video Modeling
• Self-recognition
• Attention to video
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
Observational Learning Process
Four pivotal factors that need to occur:
1. Attention
2. Retention
3. Reproduction
4. Motivation
From “Video Modeling: Why does it work for
children with autism?” by Corbett & Abdullah, 2005
Why is it effective?
•
Gives a restricted field of focus
•
Provides visual stimuli
•
Provides visually cued instruction
•
Provides ability to process visual information more readily than verbal information
•
Immediate feedback and reinforcement
•
Accentuates positive behavior
•
Improves motivation if a person sees themselves and their surroundings on video.
•
Combines two proven methods of intervention, visual cues and modeling, into one
approach.
Creating a Video Model
• Steps:
1.) Decide on target behavior/skill to address
Questions to consider?
- Is this a behavior/skill that can be addressed
through a less consuming method?
- Is this behavior/skill impeding the child’s learning or
ability to access the environment?
- Is this behavior/skill an important one to change/improve?
Creating a Video Model
Do a task analysis of skill/behavior
- Determine each skill needed in the
sequence
Identify replacement behavior
- What do you want the to do instead?
Creating a Video Model
Establish baseline through data
collection
Videotape skills/behaviors
Creating a Video Model
Edit video so only desirable skills/behaviors are seen
(max 3 min)
Other components……
• Consider a motivating theme
• Create a script for the video
• Debrief with child, positively review what has been
seen and heard to promote new behavior
What do I need?
• Video Camera:
Digital video camera
Digital camera
Flip camera
VHS camera
• Video Editing Software
• Computer with a CD or DVD burner
Camcorder to Computer
iMovie@
iMovie HD@
MovieMaker@
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
1. Connect Camcorder
2. Cut and paste
Editing window: 2 markers can be dragged to highlight
anything you want cut - press delete - it’s gone.
Video downloads to here
Bells & whistles
Also Cut & Paste
Cut & Paste to timeline
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
Target Behaviors/Instructional Goals
• What are the components of defining a target behavior that
helps support a good instructional goal?
• Many times when a strategy and intervention doesn’t work
we think that the student’s do not have the skills. We need to
reassess: Is the skill level to high, too demanding, too low?
Activity
• Watch each video
• Think about target behavior
• Write it on your sheet
• Then, write the skill needed to replace the behavior“What do you want them to do?”
• Hold on to this sheet! We will come back to it
What’s the Target Behavior?
What’s the Target Behavior
What’s the Target Behavior?
What’s the Target Behavior?
Hold on to that Thought!
Let’s look at Video Self-Modeling
VSM vs. VM
Self or Others?
• Some studies show that “using others as a model is
equally as effective as using self as a model” (Sherer
et al. 2001)
• However some skills may be better addressed
through using self as a model such as:
• Stuttering
• Reducing inappropriate behaviors
• Etc.
Video Self-Modeling
• Intervention where observers are shown videotapes
of themselves successfully engaging in an activity.
Video Examples
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m0yj-TKbvnI
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xh313WJvzCw&feature=related
Two Forms of Self-Modeling
D, Dowrick, 1977 1977
• Positive Self-Review: Reinforcing already
known skills to improve performance/ fluency
Laura Wilkinson
Gold medal Platform Diver
• Feedforward: Video of skills not yet learned.
Introducing a new skill or behavior.
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional
Support Network
April, 8, 2010
37
Self-Review
Positive Self-Review – student to view only
positive performances of a behavior that
has been targeted for intervention (Dowrick)
Brady Video
Feedfoward
• VSM is a technique that allows:
• a student to view themselves as they could in the
future (Dowrick)
Lemonade Video
How to Capture Footage for Feedforward
Videos
• Imitation – Great for language. Have children imitate
advance language skills
• Role Play – Fun! Act out behaviors in
full Hollywood fashion. Get a director’s chair and
clacker.
• Capture Rare Behaviors – Used with children who
are not responsive.
Include child and family in planning when possible
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
Imitation
Once we capture the child’s words, we can get very creative with the editing:
1.
We can ask questions that fit the utterance, e.g. Child says, “I go home”.
You can dub in adult or peer asking, “What do you do after school?”
2.
You can cut and paste individual words into sentences - slightly
expanding utterances. (You will get a visual “flutter” between words, but
this doesn’t seem to bother the children.)
3.
You can do Simon Says type games to capture physical behavior - I do,
you do.
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
Role Play
• Make it fun and include child in planning when possible.
• Works very well with Functional Behavior Assessments and/or
Positive Behavior Supports.
• Triggers for negative behaviors become scenes in the movie but appropriate responses are acted out.
• Social initiations/interactions can be scripted and lines fed to
actors.
Role Play
3 Components of a VSM Movie
1. Positively label the behavior - helps child discern
the target behavior. “Here’s Tony talking nicely with
his friends!” This usually follows with
cheering/clapping.
2. Body - Child behaving/performing well.
3. Reinforcement at end/re-label behavior. “Nice
playing, Tony!”
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support
Network
April, 8, 2010
46
Capturing More Difficult
Skills/Behaviors
• Tape the student over a period of time
• Edit the footage to show only the desirable skills/behaviors
that may be more rarely performed
Ex. Food aversion - Child rarely puts spoon to mouth during
lunch. = set up camera for 2 lunch periods, collect all the
spoon to mouth and link together = we have an eater.
Ex. Responding to questions: Film play sessions in which
questions were asked. May take a long time to get enough
responses for short video.
Can be very time consuming!
Avery Video
Skills and Target Behaviors
• Video Modeling can be used to address the following
skills and target behaviors for students to be
successful in all aspects of daily life:
»
»
»
»
»
»
»
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Social interaction behaviors
Academic skills
Communication skills
Daily living skills
Play skills
Social initiations
Perception of emotion
Perspective taking
Many Settings…..
• Modeling is a normalized method applicable
to many different settings (Tryon & Keane, 1986)
• Modeling can enable children to benefit from
inclusive environments (Jones and Schwartz,2004)
• Modeling may facilitate generalization and
maintenance from setting to setting.
Our Goal…
• To bring any instructional practice we use with
students to multiple settings as part of daily
life activities
Home - School Connection
• Important connection!
Instructional Goals
• Must have an instructional goal in mind.
• Want to select and define a target behavior that
supports the child’s ability to watch the behavior of
another and apply what they see in their own
interactions, language play, etc.
• Want the child to generalize skills to
other settings (including home)
Planning: Storyboarding
• Identify the target/replacement behavior (something
measurable/observable).
• Determine best method for capturing the behavior.
• Determine video scenes.
– Task-analyze the target or replacement behavior.
– Each step becomes a scene.
– Or, each trigger of negative behavior becomes a
scene.
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
Sample Storyboard
Morning Routine
Sam ple Storyboard - Morning Routine
Scene 1 - bedroom
Scene 2 - bathroom
Scene 3 - bedroom
bathroom time
Wake up
Make bed
Scene 4 - kitchen
“Time to go to
the bathroom”
“I have to get
dres sed now”
Scene 5 - bathroom
Scene 6 - kitchen
Hugs goodbye
Eat breakfast
Put dishes in
dishwasher
Get books, backpack
and jacket
Brush teeth
Feed dog
Dressing = pull shirt down “There.
Now downstairs.”
Back upstairs
Back downs tairs
Out to catch the bus
*Drawn freehand with child and family assistance
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas
Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
Creating a Tantrum Reduction Video
1.
Conduct a Functional Behavior Assessment to determine
tantrum triggers.
2. Translate triggers to scenes in a storyboard.
3. Plan scenes with child if possible, storyboard too.
4. Set up scenes using peers and appropriate settings. Prompt
dialog and go over child’s response to trigger in his role of
movie star.
5. Film - edit - view.
- Self-talk. Allow kids to give themselves reinforcement:
“Wow, I really handled that well!” “That wasn’t hard at all!” etc.
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
Tantrum Storyboard
Self-talk may compliment VSM
1
2
Teacher canÕt call on everybody. If I donÕt
get called, I will get another turn.
3
If s omebody jumps line, I will as k them nicely t o
go bac k. If t hat doesnÕt work, I will t ell teacher.
4
Sometimes I get problems wrong.
Everybody does . ItÕs OK. I get a lot ri ght.
Not now, Sc ot t.
I canÕt always do what I want. Maybe
later i t will be ti me for that.
Tom Buggey, Ph D
Presentation to the Kansas Instructional Support Network
April, 8, 2010
Let’s go Back to Target Sheet!
• Look at replacement behavior
• What goal do you have in
mind?
• What intervention would you
use?
• How would you make the home
school connection?
What’s the Target Behavior?
What’s the Target Behavior
What’s the Target Behavior?
What’s the Target Behavior?
VSM Do’s
• Do
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Depict positive behaviors
Select behaviors that are developmentally appropriate
Keep the video under 5 minutes
Ensure confidentiality if the video will be used by schools or agencies
Make sure there is an IEP or ISFP link
Get informed consent from parents/caregivers
Make the filming process fun
Learn new technology skills
Allow child to leave video daily and when requested
Allow child to watch the video without comment if the video includes
clear written or verbal statement about the featured behavior.
Buggey,2009
VSM Don’ts
• Don’t:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Depict negative behaviors
Select behaviors that are too advanced
Have too many special effects
Force the child to watch the video
Begin without parental consent
Expect miracles
Buggey, 2009
The Big Do!!!
Catch Them Being Good!!!!
65
Commercial Products
http://www.modelmekids.com/communitysocial-skills-autism.html
Watch Me Learn@, Model Me Kids@, and Teach2Talk@
Resources
Commercial Peer-modeling sites:
• http://www.modelmekids.com/
• http://www.socialskillbuilder.com/
• http://www.watchmelearn.com/
• Bandura, A. Retrieved from
http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
•
http://www.siskin.org/index.php?sid=89
•
http://www.alaskachd.org/video/
Exit
• Please write down one valuable piece of
information you learned
or
• How you might use this intervention Strategy
with your students.
• Leave your card at your seat
• Have a great day!
References
Apple, A.L., Billingsley, F., Schwartz, I.S. (2005). Effects of video modeling along
and with self-management on compliment-Giving behaviors of children
with high-functioning ASD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7(1),
33-46.
Bandura, A. Retrieved from http://www.des.emory.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency
Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video
self-modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism
spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 73 (3).
Buggey, T. (2007). A picture is worth . . . Video selfmodeling
applications at school and home. Journal of
Positive Behavior
Interventions, 9(3), 151-158.
Buggey, T. (2005) VSM applications with students with autism spectrum
disorder in a small private school setting. Focus on Autism and Other
Developmental Disabilities, 20(1), 52-63.
69
References
Charlop-Christy, M. H., Le, L., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). A comparison of video
modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal
of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30(6), 537-552.
Charlop, M.H., & Milstein, J.P. (1989). Teaching autistic children
conversational speech using video modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, 22, 275-285.
Clare, S.K., Jenson, W.R., Kehle, T.J. & Bray, M.A. (2000). Self-modeling as a
treatment for increasing on-task behavior. Psychology in the Schools,
37(6), p. 517-522.
Corbett, B.A. & Abdullah, M. (2005). Video Modeling: Why does it work for
children with autism? Journal of Early and Intensive Behavior
Intervention, 2 (1), 2-8.
Creer & Miklich (1970).The application of a self-modeling
procedure to modify inappropriate behavior: a preliminary
report. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8, 91-2.
70
References
Darden, F. (2006). Video self-modeling to facilitate visual symbol learning
in preschoolers with developmental delays. Dissertation: Florida State
University.
Delano, M.E. (2007). Improving written language performance of
adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, 40(2), 345-351.
D'Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B.A. (2003). Using video modeling
to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal
of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11.
Dowrick, P.W. (1991). Practical guide to using video in the behavioral
sciences. New York: Wiley.
Dowrick, Kim-Rupnow, & Power. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading.
The Journal of Special Education, 39(4), 194-207.
71
References
Darden, F. (2006). Video self-modeling to facilitate visual symbol learning
in preschoolers with developmental delays. Dissertation: Florida State
University.
Delano, M.E. (2007). Improving written language performance of
adolescents with Asperger Syndrome. Journal of Applied Behavior
Analysis, 40(2), 345-351.
D'Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B.A. (2003). Using video modeling
to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal
of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11.
Dowrick, P.W. (1991). Practical guide to using video in the behavioral
sciences. New York: Wiley.
Dowrick, Kim-Rupnow, & Power. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading.
The Journal of Special Education, 39(4), 194-207.
72

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