3 Emergence in Global Affairs

HOA Review: Day 3
African American Rights
Spanish-American War
World War I
Evaluate the approaches to equality
of two African American activists
between 1865-1929.
Approaches to Equality
• Booker T. Washington
– Accommodation (accommodate to the whites gradually, can’t expect
views to change over night, request one thing at a time), equality of
education first, then jobs, then voting, gradual change over time.
Former slave, anti-lynching, pro-education
• W.E.B. Dubois
– Demanded immediate integration! Blacks have waited long enough,
they should NOT accommodate to whites (hated Washington). All
aspects of society should be integrated right away, co-founder of NAACP
• Marcus Garvey
– Pan-Africanism, black separatism, back-to-Africa movement, Black Star
Line to transport blacks to Africa, why would blacks want to integrate
with their oppressors?
Explain the causes & effects of the Great Migration.
Resurgence of the KKK: targeting African Americans, immigrants, communists, and
radicals led to the KKK’s new popularity (peak membership – 1924)
Poverty: unemployment, lack of gov. aide
Black Codes: laws restricting the rights of newly freed blacks; such as, contract
negotiation, travel, weapons, voting and property ownership. (some states were
more radical)
Jim Crow Laws: started public segregation
Plessey vs. Ferguson (1896): implemented the “separate but equal” clause into law
States refusal to comply with Federal laws
Lynching: public execution, usually by mob, without a trial
US vs. Cruikshank (1875): Reconstruction amendments only applied to state
governments and NOT individuals
More job opportunities & pay in the North (industrial)
South refused to comply with 15th amendment, Freedmen’s Bureau
Effects of the Great Migration
Race Riots
Overpopulation of cities
Movement of whites out of cities
Harlem Renaissance
Influence of jazz
KKK moves North
Eventually federal government reaffirms right to make
laws over states
Analyze the economic and political
justifications for US expansionism.
• What was the Monroe Doctrine? How did it impact our relationship with
Latin America?
• Manifest Destiny: it was the US “destiny” to expand from “sea to shining
• Expansion as a moral duty (Social Darwinism, Eugenics, Western
• Expansion as a practical necessity (realism, military superiority, trade)
• Economic reasons for expansion (sought markets beyond North America, US
oil/steel companies sought new markets & resources)
• Political reasons for expansion (already a US presence in the Pacific, treaties
established formal trading relationships, protect US trade interests, naval
Define what the Monroe Doctrine
was and analyze how it was applied
in the late nineteenth century and
early twentieth century. Support
your answer with specific examples.
Usage of the Monroe Doctrine
Late Nineteenth Century
• Annexation of Hawaii
• Spanish-American War
Early Twentieth Century
• Roosevelt Corollary
– “flagrant and chronic
wrongdoing by a Latin
American Nation”
• Venezuelan Crisis
• Panama Canal
• Occupation of Cuba
– Platt Amendment
With reference to at least one
country of the region, to what
extent were the aims of
Progressivism achieved by 1929?
Progressivism in the U.S.
Problems in Society
Political Corruption
Social Inequality
Growth of Cities
Industrial Disorder
Child Labor
Labor Conditions
Internal Dissent
• Mandatory education
• End child labor (Jane Addams)
• Improved food sanitation (Upton
• End monopolies (Ida Tarbell)
– Sherman Anti-trust Act (Roosevelt)
Meat Inspection Act (TR)
Conservation of nature (TR)
Federal Children’s Bureau (Taft)
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
(Building codes)
Progressivism in the U.S.
Can also include:
Women’s suffrage
Direct election of Senators
Curbing power of employers over employees
Progressive taxation
Economic controls
Corporate regulation
Prohibition of drugs and alcohol
Health and safety regulation
Imperialist Policies
Roosevelt & Big Stick Diplomacy
– “Speak softly and carry a big stick,” try to solve things diplomatically, but if that didn’t work, use military or
military threat
– Paraded navy around (great white fleet) to show military superiority
– Panama Canal (approaches Colombia/Panama first to offer a deal of construction, Colombia refuses, TR
sponsors a revolt to establish independence and then builds)
Taft & Dollar Diplomacy
Use our economy to get what we wanted – fund, loans, trade
Still intervention in the reason, just economically, not militarily
Wanted influence in Latin America and this was our way of expanding economic influence
Honduras: was in debt to Britain, US paid their debt, but still had no influence in the country
Nicaragua: mining interest, financially backed revolution (Congress rejected, funded by private US banks =
anti-US sentiment), ends with military intervention anyway
Wilson & Moral Diplomacy
– Brought Christianity into politics, wanted human rights for other countries, would use military to bring
peace into wars, wanted to help because it’s the right thing to do, and to preserve democracy
– DR & Haiti: military forces occupied bases and established government, which ended civil wars so US
intervention help (ended up needing to use the military anyway)
– Mexico: troops sent to intervene in Civil War, Mexican troops raided villages inside US
Analyze the causes and effects of
the Spanish-American War.
Causes of Spanish-American War
Long Term
• Cuba’s 30 years struggle for
independence from Spain
• Harsh Spanish retaliation
• Some US citizens considered
Cuba part of the US because it
was geographically close
• US businesses invested in Cuba’s
sugar industry
Short Term
McKinley is elected in 1896
Popular US citizen support
U.S.S. Maine
Yellow Journalism
Effects of Spanish-American War
Long Term
• Marks US emergence as global
• Ends the Spanish Empire
• Allowed to maintain bases
• Increases international trade
• Continued occupation of Cuba
(Platt Amendment)
Short Term
• Occupy Cuba
• Spain signs armistice
• Paris Peace Treaty: $20
million for Cuba, Guam, PR,
Assess the role of two countries in
the Americas in First World War.
Compare and Contrast the successes
and failures of two leaders in the
Americas between 1865 and 1929.
Maybe move to tomorrow…….

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