HOA Review: Day 3 African American Rights Progressivism Imperialism Spanish-American War World War I Evaluate the approaches to equality of two African American activists between 1865-1929. Approaches to Equality • Booker T. Washington – Accommodation (accommodate to the whites gradually, can’t expect views to change over night, request one thing at a time), equality of education first, then jobs, then voting, gradual change over time. Former slave, anti-lynching, pro-education • W.E.B. Dubois – Demanded immediate integration! Blacks have waited long enough, they should NOT accommodate to whites (hated Washington). All aspects of society should be integrated right away, co-founder of NAACP • Marcus Garvey – Pan-Africanism, black separatism, back-to-Africa movement, Black Star Line to transport blacks to Africa, why would blacks want to integrate with their oppressors? Explain the causes & effects of the Great Migration. • • • • • • • • • • Causes Reconstruction Failures Resurgence of the KKK: targeting African Americans, immigrants, communists, and radicals led to the KKK’s new popularity (peak membership – 1924) Poverty: unemployment, lack of gov. aide Black Codes: laws restricting the rights of newly freed blacks; such as, contract negotiation, travel, weapons, voting and property ownership. (some states were more radical) Jim Crow Laws: started public segregation Plessey vs. Ferguson (1896): implemented the “separate but equal” clause into law States refusal to comply with Federal laws Lynching: public execution, usually by mob, without a trial US vs. Cruikshank (1875): Reconstruction amendments only applied to state governments and NOT individuals More job opportunities & pay in the North (industrial) South refused to comply with 15th amendment, Freedmen’s Bureau Effects of the Great Migration • • • • • • • Race Riots Overpopulation of cities Movement of whites out of cities Harlem Renaissance Influence of jazz KKK moves North Eventually federal government reaffirms right to make laws over states Analyze the economic and political justifications for US expansionism. Imperialism • What was the Monroe Doctrine? How did it impact our relationship with Latin America? • Manifest Destiny: it was the US “destiny” to expand from “sea to shining sea” • Expansion as a moral duty (Social Darwinism, Eugenics, Western supremacy) • Expansion as a practical necessity (realism, military superiority, trade) • Economic reasons for expansion (sought markets beyond North America, US oil/steel companies sought new markets & resources) • Political reasons for expansion (already a US presence in the Pacific, treaties established formal trading relationships, protect US trade interests, naval bases Define what the Monroe Doctrine was and analyze how it was applied in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Support your answer with specific examples. Usage of the Monroe Doctrine Late Nineteenth Century • Annexation of Hawaii • Spanish-American War Early Twentieth Century • Roosevelt Corollary – “flagrant and chronic wrongdoing by a Latin American Nation” • Venezuelan Crisis • Panama Canal • Occupation of Cuba – Platt Amendment With reference to at least one country of the region, to what extent were the aims of Progressivism achieved by 1929? Progressivism in the U.S. Problems in Society • • • • • • • • • Political Corruption Social Inequality Growth of Cities Industrial Disorder Monopolies Child Labor Labor Conditions Environment Internal Dissent Effects • Mandatory education • End child labor (Jane Addams) • Improved food sanitation (Upton Sinclair) • End monopolies (Ida Tarbell) – Sherman Anti-trust Act (Roosevelt) • • • • Meat Inspection Act (TR) Conservation of nature (TR) Federal Children’s Bureau (Taft) Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (Building codes) Progressivism in the U.S. • • • • • • • • • Can also include: Women’s suffrage Direct election of Senators Curbing power of employers over employees Progressive taxation Economic controls Corporate regulation Prohibition of drugs and alcohol Health and safety regulation • Imperialist Policies Roosevelt & Big Stick Diplomacy – “Speak softly and carry a big stick,” try to solve things diplomatically, but if that didn’t work, use military or military threat – Paraded navy around (great white fleet) to show military superiority – Panama Canal (approaches Colombia/Panama first to offer a deal of construction, Colombia refuses, TR sponsors a revolt to establish independence and then builds) • Taft & Dollar Diplomacy – – – – – • Use our economy to get what we wanted – fund, loans, trade Still intervention in the reason, just economically, not militarily Wanted influence in Latin America and this was our way of expanding economic influence Honduras: was in debt to Britain, US paid their debt, but still had no influence in the country Nicaragua: mining interest, financially backed revolution (Congress rejected, funded by private US banks = anti-US sentiment), ends with military intervention anyway Wilson & Moral Diplomacy – Brought Christianity into politics, wanted human rights for other countries, would use military to bring peace into wars, wanted to help because it’s the right thing to do, and to preserve democracy – DR & Haiti: military forces occupied bases and established government, which ended civil wars so US intervention help (ended up needing to use the military anyway) – Mexico: troops sent to intervene in Civil War, Mexican troops raided villages inside US Analyze the causes and effects of the Spanish-American War. Causes of Spanish-American War Long Term • Cuba’s 30 years struggle for independence from Spain • Harsh Spanish retaliation • Some US citizens considered Cuba part of the US because it was geographically close • US businesses invested in Cuba’s sugar industry • • • • • Short Term McKinley is elected in 1896 Popular US citizen support IMMEDIATE: U.S.S. Maine Yellow Journalism Effects of Spanish-American War Long Term • Marks US emergence as global superpower • Ends the Spanish Empire • Allowed to maintain bases overseas • Increases international trade • Continued occupation of Cuba (Platt Amendment) Short Term • Occupy Cuba • Spain signs armistice • Paris Peace Treaty: $20 million for Cuba, Guam, PR, Philippines Assess the role of two countries in the Americas in First World War. Compare and Contrast the successes and failures of two leaders in the Americas between 1865 and 1929. Maybe move to tomorrow…….