Chapter 13 Section 3 A Nation Divided

Chapter 13 Section 3
A Nation Divided
Background: During the 1920’s 800,000 African Americans had moved
North for better lives- pay and less discrimination. This created large
communities in northern cities- around 2.5 Million total
•Economic recessions hurt them badly- 1st laid off
•Riots and violence- 1919 there were 25 race riots
•1921- 30 died in Tulsa, OK
•KKK came back with a vengeance down south, midwest and in the
Rise and Fall
William Joseph Simmons re-established the Klan in 1915 at Stone
Mountain, Georgia
• Klan targets were not only African Americans but Catholics,
Jewish people, immigrants and radicals
• The Red Scare boosted membership to a high of 4 to 5 million
• Decreased Red Scare hysteria, bad publicity, corruption and
the conviction of David Stephenson for 2nd degree murder cut
the Klan’s numbers down to 9,000 by 1930
Random Marcus Garvey Information
• Marcus Garvey had a profound effect on the
black movement in his time and in the future. He
was one of the first to use the term black pride
and black is beautiful and he sold stock in the
Black Star Steamship Company. He was very
popular with the lower and middle class blacks.
• Many African Americans like WEB DuBois agreed
with some of his program but felt that African
Americans should fight for their rights in the US.
African Americans Defend Their Rights
• NAACP was formed to end lynching through legislation and
pressure on local police to investigate
• A. Philip Randolph formed the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters to raise wages, working conditions and better hours
• Marcus Garvey tried to establish a Pan-Africanism movement
to unite all black people in the world in their common cause.
Marcus was also at the forefront of the black nationalism
movement to create a homeland in Africa. Furthermore
Marcus founded the Universal Negro Improvement
Association which had two goals: economic independence
through black owned businesses and an independent black
home land in Africa
Immigration Restrictions
Many Americans felt that the US was being overrun by
immigrants. This was one reason for the Klan’s increased
membership. Nativism- believe that people from other
countries were harmful to our country- was on the rise and
the politicians enacted laws to keep the “wrong” kind of
people from being able to immigrate
Immigration Laws
1. 1921: Immigration was limited to 3% of who was here in
2. The Immigration Act of 1924: Reduced the quota to 2% of
who was here in 1890- excluded all Asian immigrants
3. 1925: New immigrants from Africa, Asia, Australia and
Europe was limited to 153,000
Mexican American Migration
Mexican Americans were exempt from the immigration
legislation. Employers in the Southwest were happy to have a
ready supply of low wage laborers
Mexican Americans were eager to come work in the US to
escape poverty, job scarcity and political upheaval- 500,000
Often times the work conditions were horrible
Mexican Americans began to move to cities and this caused
social conflict because many of the children began to
assimilate into anglo culture
American Indian Life
• Native Americans were trying to overcome the
disastrous effects of the Dawes Act which broke up
• 1922: Pueblo tribes (SW) successfully organized to
fight the Bursum Bill that was an attempt to legalize
non-Indian claims to Pueblo land.
• Solid support came from Women’s groups and
• 1924: Congress granted citizenship to all American
Indians- partly in recognition to their service in
• Widespread poverty still remained a problem

similar documents