77th_Day_Jan_2_2014 - Baltimore Polytechnic Institute

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
January 2, 2014
A/A.P. U.S. History
Mr. Green
Describe the consequences for both sides of the
North’s defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run.
Outline Union’s original military strategy and how
Lincoln was forced to adjust it during the course of the War.
Explain the critical importance of the failed
Peninsula Campaign and the Battle of Antietam in changing the
Civil War from a limited war for the Union into a total war against
AP Focus
In the early stages of the war, Lincoln is disappointed with
the performance of his generals, especially those who
commanded the eastern Army of the Potomac. General George
McClellan, who despite abundant resources at his disposal and
an army larger than his foe’s, fails to capture Richmond, Virginia,
the capital of the Confederacy, in 1862.
The war provides both free blacks and runaway slaves the
opportunity to take part in a personal crusade to destroy slavery.
Over 180,000 black men serve in the Union army.
The Civil War, begun as a limited
struggle over the Union, eventually became a
total war to end slavery and transform the
After several years of seesaw
struggle, the Union armies under Ulysses
Grant finally wore down the Southern forces
under Robert E. Lee and ended the
Confederate bid for independence, as well as
the institution of slavery.
Decades Chart 1860’s Due Friday
Civil War Chart due Friday
Identify the long and short term causes of the
American Civil War
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of
both the North and the South at the beginning
of the Civil War
Initially, the war was to be limited to roughly
90 days
Union army drilled near D.C. in summer 1861
Bull Run-July 21, 1861
Many spectators
Inflated South’s ego/overconfident, enlistees
dropped, war was over
Ended belief this would be a quick war
Army of the Potomac
George McClellan-young, arrogant, perfectionist,
loved by his men
Lincoln said he had the slows and ordered him to
Peninsula Campaign
Attack on Richmond in spring of 1862
Lee attacked from June 26-July 2, 1862
McClellan retreated
Lincoln began work on the Emancipation
Total War
1. Coastal Blockade
2. Free the Slaves
3. Cut Confederacy in 2
4. Chop Confederacy-send troops through
5. Capture Richmond
6. Engage enemy’s main strength everywhere
Britain told shippers to stay away from US ports
South reconditioned the Merrimack with old iron
railroad rails and named it the Virginia
The North sent the Monitor and fought to a tie
with the Merrimack (Virginia)
2nd Battle of Bull Run-August 29-30, 1862
Lee defeated General John Pope
Lee decided to enter Maryland
Lincoln restored McClellan to active status
McClellan discovered Lee’s battle plans on the
Halted Lee at Antietam on September 17, 1862
McClellan fired for not being bold
Ended any chance at diplomatic negotiations with
Springboard for the Emancipation-September 23,
1862-final on January 1
Slaves in rebellious states will be “forever free”
kept Border states loyal as no slaves were
Southern slaves ran away to Union camps
13th amendment
No negotiated settlement to end the war
Lost seats in 1862 Congressional election
enlistments decreased/desertions increased
No African-Americans enlisted at the
beginning of the Civil War
War Department refused free Northern Blacks
Union navy enrolled many as cooks, stewards,
As the numbers went down, black enlistees
were accepted, even though many protested
Opportunities to prove manhood, citizenship
High casualties
Confederacy enlisted slaves 1 month before
the end
Lincoln replaced McClellan with General A.E.
Burnside not fit for position
Burnside’s Slaughter Pen on December 13, 186210,000 Northern casualties-Fredericksburg
Lincoln appointed Joseph Hooker who lost at
Chancellorsville, VA on May 2-4, 1863
The South really lost this battle-Stonewall was
killed by his own troops
Lincoln replaced Hooker with George G. Meade on
June 28, 1863, 3 days before Gettysburg
Seesaw battle that ended with the Pickett’s
Charge failure-This broke the back of the
November 19, 1863-Gettysburg Address to
dedicate the cemetery
not important at the time
To what extent did McClellan prolong the
American Civil War by not being bold enough
in his decision making?
Continue Reading Chapter 21
Work on Charts.
Quiz on Friday

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