WEB High Renaissance - Saint John`s High School

Report
1495-1527
It is centered in
ROME
The Renaissance combines
the arts with the
sciences for the first
time
Leonardo da Vinci
Michelangelo
Raphael
Are the superstars
Leonardo da Vinci
Michelangelo
Raphael
Were geniuses who broke through
medieval limitations and elevated
man with their pens, brushes, and
chisels
During the Renaissance,
people learned to value life
on earth as more that a
stop on the way to the
afterlife.
Artists began to celebrate
man, not only God
Humanism flourishes

Leonardo was the
quintessential
“Renaissance Man”

Worked as an
apprentice to
Verrocchio
Self-Portrait drawing, c. 1512
He was a
Painter
Sculptor
Architect
Scientist
Engineer
Inventor
He made far
more drawings
than paintings
He kept
hundreds of
notebooks…
Pen and ink;
14”x 10”c. 1490
Leonardo da Vinci
illustrates Vitruvius’
observations about
man/ circle
As an apprentice,
Leonardo painted
the angel on the
left…
Andrea Verrocchio, Baptism of Christ, 1470, 70”x 60”
This angel
drove
Verrocchio
to stick with
sculpture
Andrea Verrocchio, Baptism of Christ, 1470, 70”x 60”
Aerial Perspective;
objects off in the
distance appear bluish.
They are lighter blue,
the farther away
Pyramidal form
Madonna of the Rocks,
1485. Oil on wood..
World’s most famous
portrait.
It took 3 years to finish
it is said to be of Lisa di
Antonio Maria
Gherardini, the wife of a
wealthy Florentine.
Mona Lisa , c. 1503-1505.
Oil on wood, approx 2’6” x 1’9”.
It was his favorite piece –
Masterpiece so much so that
Leonardo kept it for years.
Sfumato:
Means “toned down” or
“vanished in smoke”.
It helps blend the figures
into the background so they
don’t look like cut outs.
Mona Lisa , c. 1505.
Oil on wood, approx 2’6” x 1’9”.
Sfumato:
It creates a misty dreamlike effect…
chiaroscuro:
Means light-dark.
It has to do with the
gentle shading that
makes his figures look
so real
Portrait of Ginerva Benci,
Oil on Wood, 1475
Last Supper c. 1495. oil and tempera on plaster. 15’x30’
One of the most widely recognized
images in Western art
Last Supper
Can be found on the wall of a
refectory in Milan


most impressive of his works. Subjects seated at
table parallel to the picture plan.
Simple setting- not to distract from the story
Leonardo Da Vinci. “Last Supper” ca. 1495-1498. Fresco


window behind Christ serves as a halo.
people from real life used as figures for his painting

Raffaello Sanzio, born in Urbino, Italy

1483 – 1520

Died of a fever at 37

Supported by The Medici Family and Pope
Leo X
In contrast to
Leonardo and
Michelangelo,
Raphael’s style is
calm and restrained
Madonna of the Meadow,
1505. Oil on panel; $’x3”
At the beginning of
his career in
Florence, he
painted many
versions of
Madonnas
Madonna dell Granduca
c. 1505Oil on wood.
Madonna della Sedia
A Madonna “specialist”
Sistine Madonna, c.1514
He uses the
pyramidal form
(like da Vinci), but
does not use
sfumatomysterious
background

Canagiani Madonna, 1507
At 25, he moves
to Rome where
he paints more
religious pictures
and Portraits
He puts
personality
in his portraits
Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione,
c. 1515
Oil on canvas
Pope Julius II
commissioned
Raphael (25 in 1508)
to paint the frescos
in his four room
apartment. They
became known as
"The Raphael
Stanze" .
The School of Athens, 1511, Fresco
Da Vinci as PLATOhe looks to the
heavens
ARISTOTLElooks to this earth
[the here and now]
Michelangelo is
shown as a great
Greek philosopher.
He painted him in a
pose that
Michelangelo has
used in his work.
Strong, powerful…
Huge block of marble,
called “The Giant”
It assured his reputation
as an extraordinary
talent.
David, Florence, Italy , 1504
Caught Pope Julius II’s attention and
it lead to major papal commissions.
He chose to depict David sternly
watching for his approaching foe. He is
tense with gathering power
He worked for the Medici
family in Florence
Taught himself to carve by
studying the Medici
collection of classical statues
Larger than life David.
Over 13 feet tall.
Sculpted in perspective
(top heavy), so if viewed
from below the figure
looks proportional.
Contrapposto…
Pope Julius II gave the
reluctant artist the
commission to paint
the ceiling of the
Sistene Chapel.
Faced enormous
difficulties: relative
inexperience in
fresco, size, height
Rome, 1508-1512
Over 300 images
Old Testament figures
It took 4 years to complete
Creation of Man
Painted in
1541, almost 30
years after he
finished the
ceiling
The Last Judgment
Fresco
Sistine Chapel, Italy
1541
The Last Judgment
DETAIL, Fresco
Sistine Chapel, Italy
1541
, Pietà, from Old St. Peter’s
c. 1500, Marble, height 6’
Pietà = Mary holding
and mourning dead Christ
Italian for “compassion”
(think pity)
Made when he was 24
, Pietà, from Old St. Peter’s
c. 1500, Marble, height 6’
Only major work
that has
Michelangelo’s
signature on it (on
the strap across her
chest)
, Pietà,
from Old St. Peter’s
c. 1500, Marble, height 6’
Architecture
Centrally planned churches= ideal.
Comes from ancient notion that the
circle is the ideal shape- associated with
divinity.
Architecture
Centrally planned churches= ideal.
Tempietto,
by Bromante.
1502. Rome
Architecture
Tempietto, by
Bromante. 1502. Rome
a small shrine to mark
the site of St. Peter’s
crucifixion. Bramante
chose to design a circular
temple.
Tempietto = “little
temple”
Saint Peter’s,
Rome

Bramante =
leading architect
in Rome
 He was
Raphael’s
mentor




St. Peter’s was over 1,000 years old and need to be
rebuilt.
In 1506, Bramante was in charge, but he died
early on.
He chose Raphael to be his successor- but he
died shortly after…
Michelangelo takes over in 1546 and simplified
Bramante’s complex design.
Saint Peter’s, Rome
Interior- Saint Peter’s, Rome

St. Peter’s has a central
Greek cross plan, but a
long nave was added to
form a Latin cross.
Venetian artists were all about
COLOR
TEXTURE
MOOD
Bellini
Giorgione
Titian
Bellini had a
great influence on
Giorgione
Titian
St. Francis in Ecstasy,
1485. Panel; 48”x 55”
His work is
influenced
by work from
the Northern
Renaissance,
centered in
Flanders
Doge Leonardo Loredan,
1500. oil on wood; 24”x 18”
His portraits also
share the strict
attention to
surface detail
(texture)found in
the Netherlands
Doge Leonardo Loredan,
1500. oil on wood; 24”x 18”
surface detailTexture of
clothing
Tempest, c. 1510. oil on canvas; 31” x 28”
His work is like a
link between
Bellini and Titian
He liked to paint
soft muted
landscapes
He died youngnot many works…
This is a study in the
ravishes of time and
its psychological
effect
“col Tempo” (with time)
Old Woman, early 1500’s.
Oil on canvas; 26”x 23”
had a creative career
during which he
produced religious,
mythological, and
portrait paintings, in
an original way
He used vivid color
and movement
Penitent Mary Magdalen 1560s, Oil on canvas.
Titian is famous
for his intense
colors- especially
RED
Assumption of the Virgin
1516, oil on panel. 22’x 12’
He started by painting
his canvas with red
Then figures and
background with vivid
Then tone down with
at least 30 layers of
glazes
Titian is famous for
his use of light and
dark
His work is filled
with energy
Assumption of the Virgin
1516, oil on panel. 22’x 12’

Off center,
asymmetrical
architecturemore daring
composition than
artists in Rome
The Pesaro Altarpiece, 1525, canvas,
16’x9’. Venice
Rape of Europa, 1560.
Oil on canvas; 73”x81”
He is
interested in
mythological
subject
matter
Rape of Europa, 1560.
Oil on canvas; 73”x81”
He is
interested in
mythological
subject
matter
He was responsible for making the use
of canvas more popular than painting on
wood panel
The High Renaissance had reached the
peak of perfection and harmony.
What next?
…a new effort for artists to be
original, because no one
could top the Renaissance Men
In the next chapter, the
Mannerists will exaggerate
ideal beauty and will seek
instability instead of
equilibrium

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