Intrapersonal Conflict An individual is in an intrapersonal conflict if: He or she has difficulty making a decision because of uncertainty Or The alternatives are both attractive or unattractive. There are three types of intrapersonal conflict. Approach–Approach Conflict Approach–Avoidance Conflict Avoidance–Avoidance Conflict This occurs when a person has to choose between two attractive alternatives. A manager is confronted with an approach– approach conflict if he or she has to recommend one of two subordinates for promotion who are equally competent for the position. This occurs when a person has to deal with a situation that possesses both positive as well as negative aspects. A faculty member may be in this type of conflict if he or she wants to join a top school where the prospect of tenure is uncertain. This conflict occurs when each of the competing alternatives possesses negative consequences, that is, they are equally repulsive. A manager will be in this type of conflict if he or she has to decide between accepting a salary cut or quitting his or her job. Role represents behavior and attitudes expected of the occupant of a given position or status. A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. This type of conflict occurs when an individual is required to perform two or more incompatible roles. There are four types of role conflict. Intrasender Conflict Intersender Conflict Interrole Conflict Intrarole (Person-Role) Conflict This type of conflict occurs when a role sender requires a role receiver (i.e., the focal person) to perform contradictory or inconsistent roles. For example, a role sender may request the role receiver to do something that cannot be done without violating a rule, yet the role sender attempts to enforce the rule. A role receiver experiences this type of conflict if the role behavior demanded by one role sender is incongruent with the role behavior demanded by another role sender(s). For example a foreman, who receives instruction from a general foreman that may be inconsistent with the needs and expectations of the workers under the former. This type of conflict occurs when an individual occupies two or more roles whose expectations are inconsistent. A corporation president is expected, in that role, to take part in social engagements to promote the image of the corporation. This may be in conflict with his or her role as a parent, in which he or she is expected to spend more time with his or her children to be an ideal parent. This type of role conflict occurs when the role requirements are incongruent with the focal person’s attitudes, values, and professional behavior. For example, intrarole conflict occurs when an organizational member is required to enter into price-fixing conspiracies, which are not congruent with his or her ethical standards. Role Overload:This occurs when an organizational member is required to perform a number of appropriate roles sent by different role senders, which, taken as a set, are too much to be accomplished by him or her. Role Underload:Individual has very few role demands or demands are easily accomplished. Role overload can be classified as quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative Overload:-Role occupants are required to perform more work than they can within a specific time period. A large number of managers deal with this problem by working overtime. Qualitative Overload:- Role occupants believe they do not possess the skills or competence necessary to perform an assignment. Role overload can be classified as quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative Underload:- A situation where employees do not have much work to do, and, as a result, they spend part of their time doing very little work. Qualitative Underload:-Lack of mental stimulation that accompanies many routine repetitive jobs. A concept closely related to role conflict is role ambiguity. It refers to the lack of clarity in understanding what expectations or prescriptions exist for a given role. An organizational member requires information about the expectations from his or her role, the means of achieving the role, and consequences of performing the role. Role ambiguity occurs when the information either does not exist or is not properly communicated if it does exist. Role Senders:- The role senders communicate their expectations to the focal person to modify his or her behavior. Role Pressure:- Refers to the means by which expectations are communicated. Experience:- Refers to the perception of these communications by the focal person. (Interpretation Process) Response:- Role behavior/Feedback by the focal person. The episode begins with a role sender’s expectations, that is, the perceptions and evaluations of the focal person’s role behavior. The sender then moves into the next phase which takes the form of role pressure communicated to the focal person. The focal person receives the sent role and begins an interpretation process. Role conflict occurs at this stage if the sent role is different from the role expected by the focal person. The next phase is the role behavior, that is, the response by the focal person, which may take the form of either compliance or noncompliance with the sent role. Organizational factors (A) Personality factors (B) Interpersonal relations (C) Low Job Satisfaction High degree of Job related tension Low confidence in Organization Withdrawal Avoidance Misassignment and Goal Incongruence:- Qualitative Role Overload. Inappropriate Demand on Capacity:- Quantitative Role Overload. Organization Structure:- Multiple lines of authority are associated with role conflict and loss of organizational effectiveness Supervisory Style:- Supervisory support is (negatively) associated with role conflict. Position:- Role conflict is associated with positions that carry greater supervisory responsibility. Personality:- Internal and External Locus of Control. The management of intrapersonal conflict involves matching the individual goals and role expectations with the needs of the task and role demand to optimize the attainment of individual and organizational goals. The diagnosis of intrapersonal conflict can be performed by self-report, observation, and interview methods. A comprehensive diagnosis of intrapersonal conflict involves the measurement as follows: 1. The amount of intrapersonal conflict. 2. The sources of such conflict. 3. Learning and effectiveness of the individual employees. An analysis of the preceding diagnostic data should be performed to derive the following: 1. The amount of intrapersonal conflict existing in various organizational levels, units, departments, or divisions and whether they deviated from the national norms significantly. 2. Relationship between intrapersonal conflict and its sources. 3. Relationships of intrapersonal conflict to learning and effectiveness. There are two types of intervention available for the management of conflict. Process Structural Role Analysis:The technique of role analysis is a process intervention for managing intrapersonal conflict. Role analysis is an intervention designed to improve overall organizational effectiveness by intervening at individual, group, and intergroup levels. 1)Purpose of Role:- How the role fits in with the goals of the organization. 2)Role Perception:- The focal role occupant lists the activities that he or she feels occupy the role. 3)Expectations of Role Occupant:- The focal role occupant lists his or her expectations from the group members. 4)Expectations from Role Occupant:- Each participant presents a list of expectations from the focal role. 5)Role Profile:- The focal role occupant is responsible for writing down the main points of the discussion, called a role profile. Job Design:Job design is a structural intervention for managing intrapersonal conflict. This involves planning of the job, including its contents, the methods of performing the job, and how it relates to other jobs in the organization.