Minority AIDS Initiative Peer Re-Engagement Project Nancy Daniels, PATH Center Carmen Rivera, PR CoNCRA Patty Valdez, Care Resource Mariana Sarango, Boston University School of Public Health Background and Significance Intervention Goals ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Increase retention in care for out-of care PLWHA Link at-risk newly diagnosed PLWHA into HIV care Increase the percentage of PLWHA with viral load suppression Increase knowledge of HIV treatment Improve self-efficacy Improve health-related quality of life Targeted intervention: ◦ ◦ ◦ 3 identified target areas where HIV epidemic is growing: Miami, Puerto Rico, and New York City Communities of color Populations that require support with housing, mental health, or substance abuse problems Missed Opportunities in the Continuum of HIV Care Source: Cohen et al., MMRW, 2011 Study Design Overview • • Multi-Site Evaluation Randomized clinical trial • • • Peer Intervention Standard of Care Significance: • • Limited research and formal evaluation, which focuses on peer program and treatment adherence outcomes Filling the gap: peer interventions and retention in HIV care Intervention Model Identification of target populations: ◦ Out of care ◦ New patients and newly-diagnosed patients at risk for falling out of care Outreach to target populations to bring into care, enroll and randomize to study arm: ◦ Peer Intervention ◦ Standard of care Peer Intervention Training: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Peer Core Competency Training Interdisciplinary Team Training Peer Supervision Training On-going Support (e.g. Peer Conference Calls, refresher and follow-up trainings for peer and intervention staff, as needed) Integrating peers into health care team Structured Peer-Client sessions to promote behavioral change and increase retention Implementing the Peer Intervention Nancy Daniels, Program Coordinator Re-Engagement Project (R.E.P.) PATH Center Identifying Peers A collaborative effort Staff members try to identify clients that: ◦ Exhibit responsible behavior (e.g. are adherent to their medication regimens) ◦ Desire to obtain employment ◦ Have been able to maintain viral load suppression, ◦ Possess desire to help others. Useful to consider clients who may already work part-time and would like to transition to a fulltime position. The transition peers have made from client to employee has been a positive occurrence observed by other clients. Assessing Peer Readiness Things to Consider: Is this individual ready to become fully employed if he or she has not been for some time? Is this job likely to bring negative consequences to the individual such as straying from treatment regimens, relapse (for those with history of substance abuse), or mental health problems? Does individual feel comfortable disclosing his or her HIV status? Does the candidate demonstrate empathy and compassion? Does this individual seem motivated to serve as a role model to others living with HIV? Will this individuals benefits package be affected? “The transition from part-time to full time has been difficult. The time constraints, decrease in flexibility, having to consistently rearrange the children’s appointments as to coordinate with family members has created a more complex family dynamic. There has been loss of friendships based on the change in work schedule. Friends may feel like you don’t have time to talk or hangout with them. This is the price I have to pay for my personal growth.” - R.E.P. Peer Peer Training 5 Day Core Competency Training ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Peer Roles Peer Communication Skills HIV Basics HIV Life Cycle HIV Medications Peer Disclosure and Supporting Clients with Disclosure Assessing Adherence Drug Resistance Understanding Lab Values Values and HIV Stigma Motivational Interviewing Depression and HIV Harm Reduction Sexual Health Documentation Confidentiality & Boundaries Peer-Case Manager Sessions “The training prepared us for the work that we currently do. It really prepared us for interacting with clients.” - R.E.P. Peer Hiring Process Organizational challenges ◦ Extremely rigorous hiring process at The Brooklyn Hospital Center ◦ Numerous clearances, background checks, and require absolute transparency about past history It is important to reassure peers that all staff must go through this process and they can do it too Should provide support to peers and advocacy on their behalf Implementing Peer-Client Sessions Structured educational sessions, in addition to informal check-ins and support, are the meat and bones of the intervention. The topics covered: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Introduction and Assessment HIV transmission & Viral life cycle Effective Communication and Self-Advocacy Understanding Lab Values HIV Medications Drug Resistance & Adherence; Understanding and Managing Side Effects Disclosure and Stigma Harm & Risk Reduction Peers are provided a Peer-Client Sessions Manual that was developed using materials from the Core Competency Training. ◦ Also do additional research to provide information to clients from reliable sources. Intervention Implementation Challenges Securing physical space to conduct peerclient sessions Scheduling with clients Operationalizing program across two sites Overcoming Challenges Flexibility in scheduling location and times with clients ◦ Availability across both sites ◦ Meeting clients where they are ◦ Coordinating session times with medical appointments Coordinating with other staff and partner agencies to locate clients (e.g. verifying contact information) Reaching clients via communication means that are convenient for them (e.g. home visits, Facebook, etc.) Role of Peer Within Health Care Team Carmen M. Rivera, Study Coordinator Project Acércate PR CoNCRA Defining peer roles and responsibilities Peers serve many roles as part of the medical care team and within the social support systems needed by participants. Their roles and functions are aimed at improving and enhancing the lives of those living with HIV. Defining peer roles and responsibilities Defining roles and responsibilities of the peer is critical to program success. • Avoids overlapping or duplication of responsibilities with other members of the clinic (particularly case managers). • Job description should be developed and shared with members of the management team, external consultants, and representatives from funding sources. • Review job description closely with peers; this can be done as part of the recruitment process. • Job description is useful in different instances: to clarify expectation, as a tool to provide feedback at regular supervision meetings, and as an evaluation tool for job performance, among other things. Boundaries Defining peer roles is critical in order to establish boundaries peer role vs. the role of other staff members. Similarly, it is important to: ◦ Explicitly state how other staff members (physician, nurse, case manager, etc.)will be expected to work with the peer. ◦ Identify and training staff who will be supervising the peers. Establishing boundaries between the peer and clients is also essential. ◦ Peer supervisor should clearly define when exceptions can or can not be made, and why. ◦ The peer should be prepared to respond to clients in a way that honors the nature of the relationship without compromising the role of the peer or the Organization. Peer Supervision Three different styles are required: Administrative Supportive Clinical Supervision Supervision Supervision Administrative Supervision Setting clear job description and expectations. Developing action plans, goals, objectives and activities aligned with mission statement. Supporting team integration efforts. Managing logistics (administrative and programmatic). Evaluating effectiveness of peer intervention and activities. Assessing training and mentoring needs. Monitoring peer caseloads. Problem solving. Supportive Supervision General principals: Create a safe space where the peer is encouraged to share concerns. Provides individualized training and support to each peer. Monitor cases loads. Help peers manage feelings that may arise about or towards clients. Assist peers in maintaining appropriate expectations for themselves and the clients. Help peer identify and build on what works or is effective with participants. Ensure that peers stay within the scope of work and make appropriate referrals when necessary. Takes into consideration the different experiences of the peers who may be working for the first time in a highly professional health setting and who are bringing their personal wisdom, information and knowledge from their own lives. Clinical supervision Provides opportunity for peers to: Learn about transference/countertransference issues and how to manage them. Job related stressors and how they might impact on their own health and well being. Supports development of client care plans Ensures that peers work with scope of their role and make appropriate referrals if needed. Supports the peer in understanding how the work affects him/her at an emotional level. This supervision needs to be provided by a licensed professional because it requires specialized training and skills in psychological theory. Integrating Peers into the Health Care Team Initial assessment: ◦ Review of standing operations, protocols, and procedures. ◦ Identification of specific areas where the peers can contribute. Work with Case Managers and CM Supervisor ◦ Design specific mechanisms and procedures for peers support facilitate provision of services as part of a holistic multidisciplinary team. ◦ Promote case conferencing meetings with case managers. Peers should participate in relevant staff and team meetings, educational and training activities, and other activities in which they may provide support and/or learn from the experience. Promoting the Peer Program Involve different staff members in Program design and implementation. ◦ Share work plan, goals, objectives and activities, and peer job description with key staff. ◦ Make presentations on the status of the program and work of the peers during personnel meetings. Provide peers with opportunities to present to the multidisciplinary team about their work. Use all modes of communication available to keep the multidisciplinary team informed of program progress. Carefully professionalize the Peer program without compromising the essence. Always strive to maintain credibility and integrity of the peer intervention and activities. Managing Peers Who Are Clients Several considerations need to be addressed during the recruitment and hiring process (some may need to be revisited), including: ◦ The effect of salaries and compensation on benefits or entitlements such as: Food Stamp program, Housing program, health benefits, among others. HR and managers should be informed about state benefit requirements and refer peers to a benefits counselor, as needed. Peer needs clear information on Human Resources Manual, personnel policies and other institutional policies within the Organization. Supervision should provide flexibility in order to manage health issues and social support needs of peers. Challenges Integrating peers into the healthcare team has presented some challenges: Impact on the culture of the Organization Gaining trust and credibility within the multidisciplinary team Professionalizing the Peer Program without losing essence Overcoming Challenges Provide trainings for peers, Early Intervention workers, case managers, nurses and other medical staff. Ensuring peer participation in multidisciplinary team and case management meetings. Consistency in building trust, credibility and professionalizing the Peer Program. Build on the common commitment and passion of all members of the multidisciplinary team. Methods to Identify Out-of-Care Patients Patty Valdez, Program Coordinator Peer Re-Engagement Project for Men (PREP-M) Care Resource Initial Strategies of Identification Initial list generated from Ryan White database – CaseWatch – of out-of-care patients. Two major inaccuracies were discovered: ◦ Outdated contact information ◦ Patients appearing on list that had not actually fallen out of care Newly diagnosed patients identified through ◦ Referrals from the Department of Health ◦ Internally through testing department, Health Promotions Back-Up and Revised Strategies of Identification Peers worked closely with staff across the agency to identify patients that were truly out of care. Constant communication and meetings with the following personnel facilitated this process: ◦ Medical case managers ◦ Medical providers (e.g. nurses, physicians) ◦ Outreach specialists Close review of medical Transition to new Electronic Medical Records (EMR) software, Intergy, which facilitated in generating a more accurate list with updated contact information and information regarding last missed appointment Peer Role in Identification Process Peers play an integral role in the process of identifying out of care patients ◦ Constant communication with medical case managers, outreach specialists, and other providers at the agency ◦ Intensive outreach to clients via phone calls, fieldwork at partner organizations (e.g. residential treatment agencies, homeless shelters), and home visits Other Staff Members Roles in Identification Process Identifying out of care and newly diagnosed patients is a collaborative effort that requires cooperation between many staff members, including: ◦ Outreach supervisor and specialists who receive referrals ◦ Medical case managers and other providers who identify and refer patients who have not been in care ◦ Data managers who generate lists Tracking and Documentation of Outreach A great level of effort is require in the process of identifying, locating and connecting clients to care Identifying strategies that are most useful in identifying patients has been successful as a result of trial and error, and intensive documentation of contact attempts and resulting outcomes of these contacts Challenges Inaccurate lists that were generated initially via CaseWatch Outdated contact information for an often transient and hard-to-reach population Overcoming Challenges Collaboration across the agency ◦ Promotion of program across the site to secure buyin and awareness of other staff Intensive outreach to locate clients Transition to new EMR software that captures more accurate client information Evaluation Methodology ◦ Longitudinal (Baseline, 6- and 12-month follow up) ◦ Enrollment and Randomization Process Measures ◦ Methods of identification of target population ◦ Organizational and structural characteristics of successful interventions ◦ Level of effort to engage or re-engage in care Outcome Measures ◦ Clinical: CD4 and viral load, medical visits, quality of care ◦ Intervention: HIV knowledge, self-efficacy, quality of life, stigma, dose-response Multi-Site Enrollment and Randomization Process Evaluation Data Collection ◦ Web-based data collection ◦ Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) ◦ Tele-forms Evaluation Instruments ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Client surveys Chart review tool Peer encounter forms Out-of-care summary forms Questions?