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ESL English Learner Wednesdays/Fridays Workshop #2
ashamed
overwhelming
flushed
thrilling
embarrassing
Let’s have a parti(ciple)!!!
amazing
Using –ing and –ed adjectives to
increase verbal repertoire
(participial adjectives)
frightened
flustered
scared
embarrassed
thrilled
interesting
draining
I AM SO
CONFUSING!!!!!
Have you heard/said this before?
I AM SO
CONFUSED!!!!!
Here is what should be said.
THAT IS SO
CONFUSING!!!!!
Or, this is correct, too.
Why are these
answers correct?
Here is why…
Let’s look at our
statement...
“I am so
confused”
Now, let’s view it differently-In simple present, we would say
“This confuses me,”
“You confuse me,”
“He confuses me,”
“She confuses me”
or “They confuse me”
Therefore, when looking at the
“-ed” adjective….
Remember that “-ed” describes
how you feel at that time…
Since only living creatures have
feelings, the description of how you
feel needs an “-ed” adjective.
It describes how you feel
because of something that
someone (or something) did to
you.
I AM SO
CONFUSED!!!!!
An adjective ending in –ed
receives or feels an action.
I AM SO
CONFUSED!!!!!
An action happens to you, causing
the feeling…
This confuses me,
so I am confused.
In other words, this is what you
mean.
so...
Why is it
“–ed”?
Answer:
You cannot have a result
without a cause first.
Therefore, the feeling
you or others have HAS
to look like past tense
even if it is an adjective.
so...
Can a stick or a rock
feel “worried?”
Answer:
Sticks and rocks
cannot feel worried
or any other “–ed”
adjective. Only living
creatures can feel.
When looking at the “-ing”
adjective….
Remember that “-ing” describes
how someone or something else
appears to be doing at that time…
Since he, she, or it is the noun…the
description needs an adjective
This has the same appearance
as present continuous verbs:
Therefore, as present
continuous has a form of “be”
before it, as in:
• This is confusing me.
or
• You are confusing me.
…We can then say
“You are (or This is, She is, He is,
etc.) confusing me, so you are
confusing.”
In other words, because you are
actively confusing me as we
speak, what you are (to me or
others) is a confusing person.
THAT IS SO
CONFUSING!!!!!
The person or thing creates or
causes the feeling.
This confuses me,
so it is confusing
to me.
In other words, this is what you
mean.
THIS IS
CONFUSING!!
The adjective here follows the
word “is”, which looks like a verb.
THIS IS
CONFUSING!!
This is called a “stative verb” and
describes a “state of being.”
THIS IS
CONFUSING!!
Stative verbs (like “is”) are unique
in that they get an adjective.
THIS IS
CONFUSING!!
There is no activity involved. They
are passive by nature.
Some common stative verbs
before –ed or –ing adjectives are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
is, are, am (all forms of be)
feel
appear
seem
look
sound
Here is a good way to check:
If it’s a feeling that is received,
check it with “by + noun” at the
end…
I am confused by you.
Since you can say this, saying “I
am confused,” is correct.
If it’s a feeling that someone or
something causes, check it with
“to + noun” at the end…
This is confusing to him.
Since you can say this, saying
“This is confusing,” is correct.
As a result, if you tell someone,
“I am so confusing!”, you
actually mean that YOU confuse
people!!!
If that is true, THEY would be
confused by YOU.
(Chances are that this is not
what you mean at all)
Am I confusing to any of you,
yet?
Are you at all confused by me?
Questions for this part?
In groups, or individually,
please try to make 3-5 good
sentences using -ing and –ed
adjectives from the word list.
You will have the option of
sharing some of your best, if
there is time.
Alarming
Aggravating
Amusing
Annoying
Astonishing
Astounding
Boring
Captivating
Challenging
Charming
Comforting
Confusing
Convincing
Depressing
Disappointing
Discouraging
Disgusting
Distressing
Disturbing
Embarrassing
Encouraging
Entertaining
Exciting
Frightening
Frustrating
Fulfilling
Gratifying
Inspiring
Insulting
Interesting
Moving
Overwhelming
Perplexing
Pleasing
Relaxing
Relieving
Satisfying
Shocking
Sickening
Soothing
Surprising
Tempting
Terrifying
Threatening
Thrilling
Tiring
Touching
Troubling
Unsettling
Worrying
Alarmed
Aggravated
Amused
Annoyed
Astonished
Astounded
Bored
Captivated
Challenged
Charmed
Comforted
Confused
Convinced
Depressed
Disappointed
Discouraged
Disgusted
Distressed
Disturbed
Embarrassed
Encouraged
Entertained
Excited
Frightened
Frustrated
Fulfilled
Gratified
Inspired
Insulted
Interested
Moved
Overwhelmed
Perplexed
Pleased
Relaxed
Relieved
Satisfied
Shocked
Sickened
Soothed
Surprised
Tempted
Terrified
Threatened
Thrilled
Tired
Touched
Troubled
Unsettled
Worried
Looking at
Enrique’s
Journey
Now, let’s practice with a fun and
interactive lesson:
http://www.grammar.cl/Games/Adjectives_ED_ING.htm

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