Julie Atteritano, RD, CDE, CDN Biochemical marker reflecting visceral protein stores Most common protein found in the blood Produced by the liver (9-12g /day) Life span 12-20 days Maintains intravascular oncotic pressure Transports small molecules in the blood such as billirubin, Ca+, Mg, Progesterone, and medications Provides the body with necessary protein needed to maintain growth and repair tissue Stabilized serum albumin equal to or greater than the lower limit of the normal range. Approximately 4.0mg/dl K/DOQI Increased • • • • morbidity and mortality Serum albumin concentrations are identified as the most powerful indicator of mortality Risk of death in patients with serum albumin concentration < 2.5gm/dl was 20 fold than that of patients with serum albumin 4.04.5gm/dl Serum albumin 3.5- 4.0gm/dl resulted in a 2 fold increase in relative risk of death (Lowrie et al.) Edema and ascites Decreased healing Increased risk of infection Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) Caloric and protein intake are inadequate to meet nutrition needs ** Patients on hemodialysis have a higher Resting Energy Expenditure than patients in Stage 2 CKD ** Goal for intake- 30-35Kcal/Kg 1.2- 1.4 gm/Kg protein Inflammation Characterized by acute phase proteins C- reactive protein (CRP), Alpha -1 acid glycoprotein (a1-AG), Ferritin, Ceruloplasm Inflammation secondary to infection, trauma, obesity, poorly controlled DM Hydration status Proteinuria Metabolic acidosis Ensure adequate caloric and protein intake Increase intake of high biological value (HBV) proteins (Chicken, turkey, fish, red meat, eggs) Nutritional supplementation: Nepro, Liquid protein supplements (Liquacel, Prostat), whey protein powder Intradialytic Parenteral Nutrition (IDPN) Amino acids (AA), Dextrose, and lipids delivered directly into the blood stream during hemodialysis Potassium is a mineral and an electrolyte Potassium is an electrolyte which means it conducts electricity in the body along with Na+, Ca+, Mg, and chloride Responsible for skeletal and smooth muscle contraction (crucial for heart function) Plays a role in biochemical reactions and energy metabolism Catalyst in the synthesis of amino acids from protein sources Low : less than 3.5mg/dl Goal :3.5mg/dl – 5.5mg/dl High : 5.6mg/dl – 6.0mg/dl Unsafe: > 6.0mg/dl K+ levels > 5.5mg/dl Causes of Hyperkalemia include: Dietary K+ indiscretion shifts from intracellular to extracellular space (Caused by metabolic acidosis, NSAID’s, non-selective Beta-blockers) K+ bath (3K+,4K+) Non-compliance with treatment Rx Nausea Weakness Numbness and tingling Irregular heart beat Heart failure Sudden death Goal for intake 2,000mg K+ per day Avoid/limit high K+ foods Avocado (1oz) 144mg Banana (small) 422mg Cantaloupe/honeydew (1 cup) 388mg Orange (small) 240mg Mango/papaya 323mg Dried fruit (ex-Apricots 10 halves:470mg) Potato/sweet potato 512-694mg Tomato (1 cup canned) 1098mg Spinach (1 cup cooked) 839mg Winter squash (1 cup) 494mg Dried beans and peas (ex: kidney beans 1 cup 713mg) Milk (1 cup) 382mg Yogurt (8oz) 579mg Salt substitutes Apples Berries (strawberries and blueberries) Cabbage Canned peaches and pears Carrots Cauliflower Cucumber Eggplant Green beans Grapes Lettuce Non-dairy creamer Onion Rice milk Sorbet Watermelon K+ < 3.5mg/dl Causes: - Decreased po intake - Excessive diarrhea or vomiting - Certain medications (ex- diuretics) - Need for K+ bath change (3K+,4K+) Muscle weakness and cramping Fatigue Confusion Problems with muscle coordination Irregular heart beat Heart failure Dietary intervention: Liberalization Phosphorus is a mineral Most abundant after Calcium (Ca+) 85% found in bones 14% spread throughout soft tissue 1% in blood and extracellular fluid Responsible for the growth, maintenance, and repair of tissues and cells Production of genetic building blocks (DNA/RNA) Energy production: helps change protein, fat, and carbohydrates into energy Combines with Calcium (Ca+) to form calcium phosphate (predominant mineral in bone) Low: less than 3.5mg/dl Goal: 3.5mg/dl – 5.5mg/dl High: greater than 5.5mg/dl PO4 > 5.5mg/dl As kidney function diminishes (decreased GFR), the kidney loses the ability to excrete PO4 Leading to elevated serum PO4 levels Calcium- phosphorus deposits - heart - skin - lungs - blood vessels Red eyes Bone disease - bone and joint pain - weak brittle bones Increased risk of mortality Lower PO4 diet Goal for intake 800- 1,000mg per day Avoid high PO4 foods - Dairy products (milk, cheese, ice cream, yogurt) - Chocolate - Dark cola (Coke and Pepsi) - Nuts and nut butters - Organ meats - Cream soups - Processed meats - Whole grain bread Phosphorus - binders Calcium Carbonate: TUMS Calcium Acetate: Phoslo Sevelamar Hydrochloride: Renvela Lanthanum Carbonate: Fosrenol Greatest limitation is Compliance!! PO4 level < 3.5mg/dl Possible causes: - Poor po intake - Need for binder dosage adjustment Consequences: - Decreased appetite - Confusion Dietary Strategies: - Dietary liberalization - Binder dosage decrease or D/C Decreased Renal Function Decreased 1,25 (OH) Vitamin D PTH Phosphate Retention Ca+ Secondary Hyperparathyroidism PO4 Calcium is a mineral Most abundant mineral in the body 99% of calcium in the body is in bones and teeth 1% of calcium is found in the blood and soft tissues Forms strong bones and teeth Aides in muscle contraction and relaxation Transmits nerve impulses Aides in blood clotting Assists in enzymatic reactions Involved in the process of cell division and multiplication Serum levels of corrected total Ca+ should be maintained within the normal range for the laboratory used, preferably toward the lower end: 8.4mg/dl – 9.5mg/dl (K/DOQI) Corrected Ca+ > 10.2 mg/dl Causes: - Increased Ca+ intake (Ca+ based binders, Ca+ supplements or high Ca+ foods) - Too much Hectorol/Zemplar (Active form of Vitamin D) Treatment: - Avoid foods high in Ca+ - Change to non- calcium based binder - Decrease Hectorol/Zemplar dose CALCIFICATION Ca+ < 8.4mg/dl Causes: - Inadequate Ca+ intake - Vitamin D deficiency - High PO4 levels - Calcimimetics Treatment: - Increase Ca+ intake or begin supplementation - Initiate or increase Hectorol/Zemplar dose - Decrease PO4 levels to restore balance between Ca+, PO4 and PTH Paresthesia, bronchospasm, laryngospasm, tetany, and seizures How can we work together as a health care team to promote patient compliance and improve patient outcome?? Thank you so much for your time and attention!! Hope you all learned a new thing or two!!