Know Your Numbers!

Know Your Numbers!
Presented By:
Health Coach
Blood Pressure…
Blood Pressure
Blood Pressure is a measurement of the force
applied to the walls of the arteries as the heart
pumps blood through the body.
* Systolic pressure is the force in the arteries when the
heart beats
* Diastolic pressure is the force in the arteries when the
heart is at rest
* Written as Systolic/Diastolic
Blood Pressure
Low Blood Pressure:
→ ≤90 / ≤60
→ ≤120 / ≤80
→ 120-139 / 80-89
→ Stage 1: 140-159 / 90-99
→ Stage 2: ≥160 / ≥100
Managing Your Blood Pressure
 Exercise
 Reduce Your Salt Intake
(Current recommendation is
less than 2,400 mg/day)
 Reduce Your Saturated
Fat Intake
 Lose Weight
 DASH Diet (Dietary
Approaches to Stop
 Reduce Stress
 Quit Smoking
 Drink Alcohol in
Moderation, if at all
 Monitor Your Blood
Pressure Regularly
 Stay Hydrated
 Increase Potassium in
Your Diet
 When NecessaryMedication
Cholesterol is a soft, fat-like, waxy substance
found in the blood stream and in all your body’s
LDL Cholesterol
• A.K.A. “Bad” cholesterol
• Too much LDL in the blood can slowly build up the
inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brain
• Along with other substances, a plaque is formed,
narrowing the arteries & making them inflexible
• This condition is known as Atherosclerosis
LDL Cholesterol
• LDL:
Optimal: less than 100 mg/dL
Near/Above Optimal: 100 to129 mg/dL
Borderline High: 130 to 159 mg/dL
High: 160 to 189 mg/dL
Very High: 190 mg/dL and above
HDL Cholesterol
• A.K.A. “Good” cholesterol
• Medical experts believe HDL cholesterol tends to carry
cholesterol away from the arteries & into the liver where
it’s passed from the body
• Some experts think HDL removes excess cholesterol
from arterial plaque, slowing its buildup
HDL Cholesterol
• HDL:
– Higher levels are better
– Low levels (>40 mg/dL for men, >50 mg/dL for
women) puts you at higher risk for heart disease
– In the average man, HDL levels range from 40-50
– In the average woman, HDL levels range from 50-60
– An HDL cholesterol of 60 mg/dL or higher gives some
protection against heart disease
• A form of fat in the body
• Elevated numbers can be due to
overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, cigarette
smoking, excess alcohol consumption, diet high
in carbohydrates
• Triglycerides:
Normal: less than 150 mg/dL
Borderline-High: 150-199 mg/dL
High: 200-499 mg/dL
Very High: 500 mg/dL
Total Blood (Serum)
Cholesterol Levels
• Desirable—Less than 200mg/dL
• Borderline-High Risk—200-239 mg/dL
• High Risk—240 mg/dL and over
Cholesterol Ratio
• The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol
• Obtained by dividing the HDL cholesterol level
into the total cholesterol
– Example: if a person has a total cholesterol of 200
mg/dL and an HDL cholesterol level of 50 mg/dL, the
ratio would be 4:1
• The goal is to keep the ratio below 5:1
• The optimum ratio is 3.5:1
Managing Your Cholesterol
Eat a heart-healthy diet
Get regular physical activity
Avoid tobacco smoke
Work with your doctor to create a prevention and/or
treatment plan
Make lifestyle changes
Take medication, if necessary (as prescribed by a doctor)
Limit alcohol to no more than 1 drink per day for women
and 2 drinks per day for men
Blood Glucose…
Blood Glucose
The term used for the amount of glucose in
the blood. Glucose, transported via the
bloodstream, is the primary source of
energy for the body’s cells.
Blood Glucose
• Levels are tightly regulated in the body
• Normally, the blood glucose level is maintained between 4 and 8
mmol/L (70 to 150 mg/dL in the US)
• The total amount of glucose circulating in the blood is therefore about
3.3 to 7g (assuming an ordinary adult blood volume of 5 liters)
• Hypoglycemia is a condition where blood glucose levels drop too low
• Hyperglycemia is a condition where blood glucose levels remain too
high; Long-term hyperglycemia leads to diabetes mellitus, or failure of
blood sugar regulation
Understanding Your Results
• There are four primary blood sugar tests, and the results
vary depending on the test:
– Fasting Blood Sugar Test
Measures the blood sugar after fasting for at least 8 hours or overnight
Lower than 100 mg/dL is Normal
100-125 mg/dL is Pre-Diabetes
Type I or Type II diabetes is consistent with results of 126 mg/dL or
higher, but generally requires repeated results
• Results of 200 mg/dL or higher are interpreted as having diabetes
Understanding Your Results
– Random Blood Sugar Test
Measures the blood sugar at any point in time
Lower than 100 mg/dL is Normal
Higher than 100 mg/dL but lower than 199 mg/dL is Pre-Diabetes
200 mg/dL or higher suggests Type I or Type II diabetes
– Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
• Measures your body’s response to sugar
• Generally used with pregnant women to determine if they have
gestational diabetes
• Lower than 140 mg/dL is Normal
• 140 mg/dL to 199 mg/dL is considered Pre-Diabetes
• 200 mg/dL or higher is considered Type I or Type II diabetes
Understanding Your Results
– Glycated Hemoglobin (A1C) Test
• This test is for diabetics and gauges how well you’re managing
your diabetes
• Reflects your average blood sugar level for the past two or
three months
• For people without diabetes, the normal range is 4-6 percent
• An A1C level lower than 7 percent is the target for people with
• An A1C level lower than 6 percent is the target for people with
diabetes, who are pregnant or have other health concerns
• An A1C level higher than 7 percent may indicate a change is
needed in your diabetes treatment plan
Improving Your Blood Glucose
• Maintain near-normal levels
• Healthier food choices
– Use the glycemic index to assist in determining which
foods to eat
– Combining foods with a larger glycemic index with
foods of a lower one can help balance out their effect
on blood glucose levels
• 30 minutes/day of moderate, physical activity
Glycemic Index
• The Glycemic Index ranks carbohydrates
according to their effect on blood glucose
• Low GI: 55 and under
• Medium GI: 56 to 69
• High GI: 70 and above
Know Your Numbers

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