Sleep is: a state of altered consciousness, characterized by certain patterns of brain activity and inactivity. vital to mental health. restorative – it allows the brain to recover from exhaustion and stress while the body conserves energy. Stages of Sleep Prior to sleep, the body temperature decreases, pulse rate drops, and breathing becomes slow and even. Stage I – pulse becomes even slower, muscles relax, breathing becomes uneven and brain waves become irregular. Stage II – brain waves will shift in amplitude and frequency, eyes roll from side to side. Stage III – deeper sleep, large amplitude delta waves sweep across the brain every second. Stage IV – deepest sleep and difficult to awaken a sleeper in this stage, muscles are even more relaxed, eyes move rapidly (REM), pulse rate and breathing is irregular, levels of adrenal and sexual hormones rise. * cycle repeats about every 90 minutes **at no point does the brain become totally inactive Sleep Disorders Insomnia Sleep Apnea Narcolepsy Nightmares and Night Tremors Sleepwalking and Sleep Talking Dreams are the mental activity that takes place during sleep. Because the amounts of time spent in REM sleep increase during the night, the last dream is likely to be the longest and the one people remember when they wake up. A large percentage of the emotions experienced in dreams are negative or unpleasant – anxiety, anger, sadness, etc… Some dreams are negative enough to be considered nightmares. **end of notes** Hypnosis is a form of altered consciousness in which people become highly suggestible to changes in behavior and thought. Participants are NOT put to sleep – it is a form of trance. Hypnosis has uses in medical and therapeutic settings. Memory can be aided or enhanced Pain can be eliminated or reduced Problems can be revealed and insight gained Biofeedback is a technique in which a person learns to control physiological processes with the help of feedback. Can control processes such as heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, and sweat-gland activity Meditation is when a person focuses his or her attention on an image or thought to clear the mind and produce relaxation. 3 types Transcendental : involves the mental repetition of a mantra Mindfulness : focuses on the present moment (a Buddhist tradition) Breath : concentration on respiration – inhaling and exhaling Psychoactive Drugs Interact with the central nervous system to alter a person’s mood, perception, and behavior. Range from stimulants (like caffeine in coffee/cola) to depressants (like alcohol) to hallucinogens (like marijuana and LSD). Enter the blood stream and are taken up in target tissues in various parts of the body Marijuana Effects differ from person to person and can be pleasant or unpleasant. Studies suggest that it is more damaging to the lungs than cigarette use. Disrupts memory formation, making it difficult to carry out mental and physical tasks. Hallucinogens Main effect is the production of hallucinations. Also called psychedelics because they create a loss of contact with reality. The most potent hallucinogen is LSD. Opiates Usually called narcotics Includes opium, morphine, and heroin Produce analgesia (pain reduction) and euphoria. Alcohol Is the most widely used and abused mind-altering substance in the U.S. Effects depend on the amount, frequency, and body weight of the drinker. Effects are slurred speech, blurred vision, impaired judgment and memory. Drug Abuse and Treatment Drug abusers are people who regularly use illegal drugs or excessively use legal drugs. Risks of abuse are danger of death or injury, damage to health, legal consequences, destructive behavior, and loss of control. Treatment requires the individual to 1) admit they have a problem 2) enter a treatment program or get therapy 3) join a support group to help reduce the possibility of a relapse.