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LANGUAGE
FOCUS
* Pronunciation: /θ/ /đ/
* Grammar and vocabulary:
1. Non-defining and defining
relative clauses.
2. Although to connect
contrasting ideas.
I./Pronunciation:
•Listen and repeat:
/θ/
think
thought
mouth
/đ/
thin
something
birthday
they
those
clothes
then
another
brother
* Practise these sentences:
1.I thought Mr.Smith was thirty-three.
2. But next Thursday will be his
thirtieth birthday.
3. Something about him makes me
think he is like my brother.
4. The roses that you gave him are
beautiful.
5. Look at the clothes on that thin
man over there.!
II./Grammar and vocabulary:
A. Non-defining and defining relative clauses
1. Relative clauses : (Mệnh đề quan hệ)
* Remember:
_ Mệnh đề quan hệ là mệnh đề được dùng để bổ nghĩa
cho danh từ đứng trước nó.
_ Mệnh đề quan hệ phải đứng ngay sau danh từ mà nó
bổ nghĩa.
_ Trong mệnh đề thường có thể sử dụng những trạng
töø quan hệ: when, where, why, what.
_ Mệnh đề quan hệ được nối với mệnh đề chính bằng
các đại từ quan hệ: who, whom, which, whose, that…
Ex: 1. This is my country where I was born.
2. The boy who sits near me is very friendly.
WHO:duøng thay theá cho danh töø chæ ngöôøi;coù theå laøm chuû
töø hoaëc tuùc töø.
a.This is the man who saved my life
(who=subject)
b.This is the man who\whom I was telling you about
(who\whom=object)
WHICH:duøng thay theá danh töø chæ vaät;coù theå laøm chuû töø
hoaëc tuùc töø.
a.He took me to a restaurant which had very good service
(which=subject)
b.He took me to the restaurant which we’d read about in the paper.
(which=object)
THAT:coù theå duøng ôû caùc vò trí cuûa WHO hoacë
WHICH nhö trong caùc caâu treân.
a.This is the man that\who taught me how to play the guitar.
b.He took me to the school that\which was built his
grandfather.
WHOSE: laø ñaïi töø quan heä sôû höõu thay theá cho danh
töø chæ ngöôøi hoaëc vaät,loaøi vaät
(vôùi yù nghóa nhö”his,her,their”….).
 This is the man whose daughter teaches at our school
(This is the man. His daughter teaches at our school)
 The man whose car was stolen is now reporting to the
police.
(The man is now reporting to the police. His car was stolen.)
ZERO relative: khi who hoaë which duøng ôû vò trí tuùc
töø(object) chuùng ta coù theå löôïc boû.
a.Do you remember the name of the man who\whom we met
on the train?
OR: Do you remember the name of the man we met on the
train? (zero relative)
b. The movie which we watched on TV last night was really
moving
OR: The movie we watched on TV last night was really
moving (Zero relative)
WHERE & WHEN : chúng ta có thể dùng
WHERE và WHEN như các đại từ quan hệ (Relative
pronouns). WHERE dùng sau từ chỉ nơi chốn;
WHEN dùng sau từ chỉ thời gian.
a). The factory is going to close down. My brother
works there.
The factory where my brother works is going to
close down.
b). We’re returning to the town. We spent a few
holidays in that town.
We’re returning to the town where we spent a few
holidays.
c). Do you remember the time? The accident
happened at that time.
Do you remember the time when the
accident happened?
d). I went on a trip last summer. I met my
boyfriend at that time.
I went on a trip last summer when I met my
boyfriend.
WHY : sau từ “ reason” chúng ta thường dùng
WHY ( cũng có thể dùng THAT để nối thành
mệnh đề quan hệ ( Relative claues) :
a). She left without saying anything. I don’t
know the reason.
I don’t know the reason why she left without
saying anything.
b). They were late. Did they tell you the reason?
Did they tell you the reason why they were
late ?
a. Defining relative clauses: (Mệnh đề quan hệ
xác định)
* Định nghĩa:
Mệnh đề quan hệ được gọi là xác định khi nó
cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu. Bỏ nó đi câu sẽ
không đầy đủ ý nghĩa. (Mô tả những danh từ
đứng trước nó để phân biệt với các danh từ khác
cùng loại, làm rõ danh từ).
Ex: 1. The woman who lives next door is a
doctor.
2. The hotel where we stayed was very
clean.
b. Non-defining relative clauses: (Mệnh đề quan hệ không
xác định)
* Định nghĩa:
Mệnh đề quan hệ được gọi là không xác định khi nó
không cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu, bỏ nó đi mệnh đề
chính vẫn đảm bảo đầy đủ ý nghĩa.
* Đặc điểm:
Mệnh đề quan hệ được gọi là không xác định khi trước nó
là 1 danh từ riêng, hoặc trước danh từ đó có các tính từ sở
hữu (my, his, her, your, our, their,…) hay đại từ chỉ định
(this , that, these, those…)
Ex: 1. The Thames, which flows through London, is a
beautiful river.
2. His daughter, who sat next to me, sang well.
* Note:
_ Giữa mệnh đề chính và mệnh đề quan hệ
không xác định có dấu phẩy ngăn cách.
_ Không được lược bỏ đại từ quan hệ trong
mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.
which: có thể thay thế cho 1 mệnh đề
Ex: Marry passed her driving test, which
surprised everybody.
c. Relative pronouns with prepositions:
(giới từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ)
_Giới từ thường đứng trước whom (cho
người) và which (cho vật).
Ex: to whom/with whom/for which/to
which/all of/ most of/ ….. + whom/which.
Mr.Smith, to whom I spoke on the
phone last night, is very interested in
soccer.
B. Connecting contrasting ideas: Although
_ Chúng ta dùng các liên từ trong mệnh đề chỉ
sự nhượng bộ khi chúng ta muốn nói rằng có sự
tương phản xảy ra trong mệnh đề chính và mệnh
đề chỉ sự nhượng bộ.
_ Cấu trúc:
Although + S + V , main clause
Main clause + although + S +V
Cấu trúc trên cũng áp dụng đối với các liên
từ khác trong mệnh đề nhượng bộ, như: though,
even though.
* Note: Nếu các liên từ although, though, even
though được đặt ở đầu câu thì mệnh đề chỉ sự
nhượng bộ phải được đặt ngăn cách với mệnh
đề chính bằng 1 dấu phẩy. Khi chúng được đặt
giữa câu thì giữa 2 mệnh đề không cần dấu
phẩy ngăn cách.
Ex: 1. Although the home team lost, they
played very well.
2. Even though it was raining, I still went
to school on time.
3. He still goes to school although he isn’t
fine.
•Note: Khi dùng though, although, even
though, ta không dùng but và ngược lại
•Ex: 1. Although she isn’t brilliant, she
studies quite well.
2. She isn’t brilliant but she studies
quite well.
Although + clause (S+V)
 In spite of + N / Noun phrase / V-ing
Exercise 2. Combine the following
sentences using although
Example: New York is not the capital of the
USA. It is the home of the United Nations.
-Although New York is not the capital of
the USA, it is the home of the United
Nations.
1.There is not much to do in the countryside.
I prefer living in the countryside.
Although there is not much to do in the
countryside, I prefer living there.
2. There is a lot of pollution in Los
Angeles. It is an ideal place to live.
Although there is a lot of pollution
in Los Angeles, it is an ideal place
to live.
3. The shops are crowded. People
are not buying much.
Although the shops are crowded,
people are not buying much.
4. The city is a favourite tourist
destination for many people. It has
its problems.
Although the city is a favourite
tourist destination for many, it has its
problems.
5. It is a safe neighbourhood. It is
best to be careful.
Although it is a safe neighbourhood,
it is best to be careful.
UNIT 15: CITIES
I. PRONUNCIATION
A. Which of the following words in each group is stressed on a different
syllable from the others?
1. B. rename 2. A. apartment
characterize
3. C. museum 4. D. gallery 5. C.
B. Which of the following words in each group has the underlined part
pronounced differently from that of the others?
1. A. thought
2. D. these
3.A
4.C
5.D
II. GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Exercise 1: Complete the sentences in Column A with the adjective clauses
in column B.
1. C
2. F
3. I
4. K
5. B
6. E
7. H
8. A
9. D
10. G
Exercise 2: Decide which answer A, B, or C best fits each space.
1. C
2. C
3. B
4. A
5. C
6. C
7. A
8. C
9. C
10. B
11. A
12. A
13. C
14. C
15. C
Exercise 3: Write the pronouns that can be used to connect the adjective
clauses to the
main clauses: who, who(m), which, whose , that, and/or Þ
1. which / that / Þ 2. who / that
3. whom
4. who(m) / that / Þ
5. whose
6. who(m) / that / Þ
7. whose
8. which / that / Þ
9. who /that 10. whose
11. which / that / Þ
12. whom
14. whose
13. which / that
15. whom
Exercise 4: Match the parts and write the sentences with an adding clause.
Use who or
which. Use commas where necessary.
1. Nelson Mandela, who was in prison for 27 years, became President of
South Africa.
2. John Lennon, who was killed in 1980, was one of the Beatles.
3. The Titanic, which sank in 1912, was supposed to be unsinkable.
4. Queen Victoria, who came to the throne in1837, ruled over the British
Empire.
5. Mars, which is 140 million miles away, is known as the red planet.
6. The Berlin Wall, which was built in 1961, stood for 28 years.
Exercise 5: Make one sentence from two. Use the sentence in brackets to
make a Relative
Clause. Use commas where necessary.
1. Catherine, who lives next door, is very friendly.
2. We stayed at the Park hotel, which a friend of ours had recommended.
3. I went to see the doctor who told me to rest for a few days.
4. We often go to visit our friends in Bristol, which is not very far away.
5. John, who (m) I have known for a very long time, is one of my closest
friends.
6. Sheila, whose job involves a lot of traveling, is away from home a lot.
7. The new stadium which can hold 90,000 people will be opened next
month.
8. A friend of mine, whose father is the manager of a company, helped me
to get a job.
9. People who are protesting against pollution have matched to London.
10. The girl whose bag I offered to carry turned out to be an old friend.
11. John’s flat, which is in the same block as mine, is much larger.
12. My radio, which isn’t very old, has suddenly stopped working.
13. The person to whom I spoke before said the repair would be free of
charge.
14. My bedroom, which was rather small, looked out a noisy street.
15. The guests who were late didn’t have enough to eat.
Exercise 6: Complete the sentences. Use although + a sentence from the
box.
1. Although he has a very important job, he isn’t particularly well-paid.
2. Although I had never seen her before, I recognized her from a
photograph.
3. She wasn’t wearing the coat although it was quite cold.
4. We thought we’d better invite them to the party although we don’t like
them very much
5. Although I didn’t speak the language, I managed to make myself
understand.
6. Although the heat was on, the room wasn’t warm.
7. I didn’t recognize her although I’d met her twice before.
8. We’re not very good friends although we’ve known each other a long
time
9. Although Minh was ill, he still came to the meeting.
10. Although he promised that he wouldn’t be late, he didn’t arrive until 9
o’clock.
Exercise 7: Choose the best completion.
1. C.
2. C.
3. B.
4. B.
5. C.
6. B.
7. A.
8. A.
9. A.
10. C.
Exercise 8: Choose the correct completion, although
or in spite of.
1. In spite of
2. although
3. in spite of
4.
although 5. although
6. In spite of
7. although
8. in spite of
9. in
spite of 10. although
Exercise 9: Rewrite the sentences, using although or
in spite of.
1. Although I was very tired, I didn’t sleep.
2. Although the salary was low, he accepted the job.
3. Although I was hungry, I didn’t eat anything.
4. Although he felt unwell, he went on working.
5. Although he was disappointed, he tried to smile.
6. In spite of their quarrel, they remain the best of
friends.
7. In spite of the bad weather, they went out for
dinner.
8. In spite of his age, he still leads an active life.
9. In spite of his hard work / working hard, Ba he
failed his exam.
10. In spite of the heavy rain, we decided to go to see
the match.
III. VOCABULARY & WORD STUDY
Exercise 1: Complete each sentence with the correct
form of the word in parentheses.
1. financial2. financial3. communicative
4.
communication 5. famous
6. differently
7. foundation 8. famous
9.
fame
10. differences
Exercise 2. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits
each space.
1. D. population 2. B. took over 3. B. variety 4. D.
established
5. B. second
6. C. located
7. A. symbol 8. D. all over 9.
C. well-known 10. A. one of the
Exercise 3. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits
each space.
1. A. 2. B. 3. C. 4. D. 5. C. 6. D. 7. A. 8. C. 9. B. 10.
D.
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