PMP CAPM Workshop Time

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PMP/CAPM Prep Workshop
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PMP/CAPM Prep Workshop
1
Course Objectives
• The class will
– Prepare you to take the PMP Exam
– Cover the required classroom training hours
• The class will not
– Make you an expert on Project Management
– Make you an expert Project Manager
– Serve as your only reference for the exam
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2
Tonight’s Topic
Project Time Management
• Reference Material
– Chapter 6
– Chapter 6
PMBOK 5th Edition
PMP Exam Prep 8th Edition
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Scope Baseline
• The approved project scope statement and its
associated WBS and WBS dictionary form the
scope baseline.
• Performance in meeting project scope goals is
based on the scope baseline.
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4
WBS in Chart and Tabular Form
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5
Work Packages
A work package is a task at the lowest level of
the WBS.
It represents the level of work that the project
manager monitors and controls.
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Work Packages
• You can think of work packages in terms of accountability and
reporting.
– If a project has a relatively short time frame and requires
weekly progress reports, a work package might represent work
completed in one week or less.
– If a project has a very long time frame and requires quarterly
progress reports, a work package might represent work
completed in one month or more.
– A work package might also be the procurement of a specific
product or products, such as an item purchased from an outside
source.
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7
Time Management Definition
Time Management includes the processes required
to accomplish timely completion of the project. The
Project Time Management process includes the
following
–
–
–
–
–
–
Define Activities
Sequence Activities
Estimate Activity Resources
Estimate Activity Duration
Develop Schedule
Control Schedule
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8
Table 3-1. Project Management Process Groups
and Knowledge Area Mapping
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General Information
• Mostly Used in the Planning Effort
• The main documents produced
– activity list and attributes
– a milestone list
– a network diagram
– the activity resource requirements
– the activity duration estimates
– a project schedule
• Don’t Think About Software
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10
Schedule Management Plan
• Schedule management baseline to measure
against
• Identification of performance measure
• Decide how schedule variance will be
managed.
• Identification of schedule change control
procedures.
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11
Activity Definition
Ensure that project team members have a complete
understanding of all the work they must do as part of the
project scope so that they can start scheduling the work.
.
Inputs
Tools and Tech
Enterprise
Environmental Factors
Scope Baseline
Organizational process
assets
Decomposition
Templates
Rolling Wave Planning
Expert Judgment
Outputs
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Milestone List
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12
Goal
• Take the Work Packages developed in the WBS
and break them down further (decompose) in
order to reach the activity level.
• Activity: A level small enough to estimate,
schedule, monitor, and manage.
• Get the activities ready to be sequenced.
PMP/CAPM Prep Workshop
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13
Activity Def Summary and Tips
• Don’t take Activity Definition Lightly
• Remember the main outputs: Activity List,
Activity Attributes, Milestone List, and
Requested Changes
• Rolling wave planning
• Remember that activity definition comes after
the WBS is developed
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14
Activity Sequencing
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Activity Sequencing Definition
Identifying and documenting dependencies
among schedule activities.
Inputs
Project Scope Statement
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Milestone List
Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Tech
Precedence Diagramming Method
(PDM)
Dependency Determination
Schedule Network Templates
Applying Leads and Lags
Outputs
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Project document updates
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16
Goal
• Take the activities and sequence them into
how the work will be performed
• Develop a Network Diagram which shows just
dependencies
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Activity Sequencing
• Keys to activity sequencing
– What is the sequence?
– Identify all dependencies
• Sequencing can be performed with software
– For the test forget about software
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Types of Dependencies
• Mandatory Dependencies (hard logic)
– Inherent in the nature of the work being done
• Discretionary Dependency (preferred or soft
logic)
– Based on experience, desire, or preferences
• External Dependency
– Based on the needs and desires of parties outside
of the project
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19
Network Diagrams
• Network Diagrams in the pure form show just
dependencies
• Sometimes referred to as Network Logic
Diagrams
• Shows how tasks will flow from the Start to
the End of a Project
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How to Construct Network Diagrams
 In the Activity On Arrow (AOA) approach, or the
arrow diagramming method (ADM), activities are
represented by arrows and connected at points
called nodes to illustrate the sequence of activities

only show finish-to-start dependencies (most common
type of dependency).
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21
How to Construct Network Diagrams
 Activity On Node(AON) or the precedence
diagramming method (PDM) is a network
diagramming technique in which boxes represent
activities.
 These are more widely used as they can show all
dependency types.
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22
Activity on Node – Precedence
Diagramming Method
Task A
Task B
Task C
End
Start
Start
Task D
Task E
Task F
• Boxes represent tasks and arrows show
dependencies
• Task C can’t start before task B and D finish
• Dummies not allowed
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23
Types of Relationships in PDM
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Activity Sequencing – Key Terms
• Milestones – significant events in a project schedule
• Leads – start an activity before the predecessor
activity is completed (code before design complete)
• Lag – inserted waiting time between activities
(waiting for paint to dry)
• Requested Changes - network diagrams sometimes
expose requested changes
• Graphical Evaluation and Review Technique (GERT)
– a network diagram drawing method that allows
loops – (design and test)
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25
Estimate Activity Resources
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Activity Resource Estimation Definition
GOAL: Estimating the type and quantities of
resource required to perform each schedule
activity
Inputs
Enterprise Environmental
Factors
Organizational Process
Assets
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Resource Calendars
Tools and Tech
Expert Judgment
Alternatives Analysis
Published Estimating Data
Project Management
Software
Bottom-Up Estimating
Outputs
Activity Resource
Requirements
Resource Breakdown
Structure (RBS)
Project document updates
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27
Activity Resource Estimating
• Resources are people, equipment, materials
• Resources must be planned and coordinated
to avoid resources being assigned to other
work
• Consider developing a Resource Breakdown
Structure (RBS) – hierarchical structure of the
identified resources by resource category
• Crashing and fast-tracking which we will cover
later
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28
Estimate Activity Durations
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29
Activity Duration Estimation Definition
Estimating the number of work periods that will
be needed to complete individual schedule
activities
Inputs
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Project Scope Statement
Activity List
Activity Attributes
Activity resource requirements
Resource Calendars
Tools and Tech
Expert Judgment
Analogous Estimating
Parametric Estimating
Three-Point Estimating
Reserve Analysis
Outputs
Activity Duration Estimates
Project document updates
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30
Goal
Once the type and quantity of resources needs
are determined, the amount of work effort to
complete the schedule activity needs to be
estimated.
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31
Activity Duration Estimating
• One-Time Estimate
• Analogous Estimate
• Parametric Estimation

Always have the
people doing the work
provide the estimates.
– Regression Estimation
– Learning Curve
• Heuristics
• Three-Point Estimates
• Reserve Analysis
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32
Activity Duration Guidelines
• Evaluate one activity at a time
• Assume “Normal” level of labor and
equipment
• Assume “Normal” work week
• Disregard contract completion date on first cut
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33
Develop Schedule
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34
Schedule Development
Analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource
requirements, and schedule constraints to create
the project schedule.
Inputs
Organizational process assets
Project scope statement
Activity list
Activity attributes
Project Schedule Network Diagrams
Activity Resources Requirements
Resource Calendars
Activity Duration Estimates
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Tools and Tech
Schedule Network Analysis
Critical Path Method
Schedule Compression
What if scenario analysis
Resource Leveling
Critical Chain Method
Adjusting leads and lags
Scheduling Tool
Outputs
Project Schedule
Schedule Baseline
Schedule Data
Project document updates
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35
Goal
Project schedule development is an iterative
process that determines planned start and finish
dates for project activities.
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36
What do you need to develop a Schedule ?
• An understanding of the work required on the
project (Project Scope Statement)
• Defined Activities (WBS, WBS Dictionary, and
Activity List
• The Order of How the Work will be done (Sequence
Activities)
• An Estimate of the Resources Needed (Estimate
Activity Resources)
• An Estimate of the Duration of Each Activity
(Estimate Activity Duration)
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37
Other important facts
• Things to Remember
– Work with Stakeholders Priorities
– Look for Alternative ways to Complete the Work
– Look for Impacts on Other Projects
– Meet with Managers to Negotiate Resources
– Give the Team a Chance to Approve the Final
Schedule
– Compress the Schedule (Crashing and Fast
Tracking)
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38
Schedule Network Analysis
•
•
•
•
•
PERT
Critical Path Method
Schedule Compression
What-If Scenario Analysis
Resource Leveling
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39
PERT
Memorize the Formulas
Formula
(P+4M+O)
6
Standard Deviation
(P-O)
6
Variance
P-O
6
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40
Critical Path Method (CPM)
• Determines the longest path in the Network
Diagram
• Determines the earliest and latest an activity
can start and the latest it can be completed
• Method requires an understanding of
– Critical Path
– Near Critical Path
– Float or Slack
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41
Critical Path
• Helps prove how long the project will take
• Helps the Project Manager determine where best to
focus their Project Management efforts
• Helps determine if an issue needs immediate
attention
• Provides a vehicle to compress the schedule during
project planning and whenever there are changes
• Provides a vehicle to determine which activities have
float and can therefore be delayed without delaying
the project
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42
Near Critical Path
• The path close in duration to the critical path
• Something that shortens the Critical Path
could Lengthen the Near Critical Path and
actually change the Near Critical Path to the
Critical Path
• Manage to both the Critical Path and the Near
Critical Path to ensure the project isn’t
delayed
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43
Float or Slack
• Must be able to calculate it manually
• Total Float – amount of time an activity can be
Delayed without delaying the project
• Free Float – amount of time an activity can be
Delayed without delaying the early start date of a
successor
• Project Float – amount of time a project can be
delayed without delaying the externally imposed
deadline committed to by the Project Sponsor
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44
Float is an asset
• Extremely Useful
• Allows you to focus your management on the
project
• Helps team members juggle multiple projects
and priorities
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45
Using CPM
• You Must Determine the Earliest and Latest an
activity can start and the latest each activity can be
finished
• Remember the formula for Float or Slack:
– LS – ES
– LF – EF
• Early figures found by calculating from the Beginning
to End – Forward Pass
• Late figures found by calculating from the End to the
Beginning - Backward Pass
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46
Drawing a Network using CPM
• Draw the node and insert boxes in each
corner as shown below:
Duration
ES
EF
Float
LS
LF
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Forward Pass
• First Node in a Network Diagram has an
Early start of 0
• Work through the Network Diagram and
the Critical Path from Start Until End
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More on Critical Path
• There can be more than one critical path
• Multiple critical paths increase risk
• Critical Path can change
• Should have Zero Float
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49
Schedule Compression
• Done during planning or Integrated Change Control
– Is desired completion date attainable?
– Helps define impacts to Time, Cost, Scope, and Risk
– Compress the schedule without changing Scope
• Techniques
– Fast Tracking
– Crashing
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50
Fast Tracking
•
•
•
•
Doing Critical Path Activities in Parallel
Results in Rework
Increases Risk
Increased Communication
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51
Crashing
•
•
•
•
Add Resources to Tasks on the Critical Path
Costs More
Adds Ambiguity
Will Need to Train New Resources
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52
Other Scheduling Tools
• What-If Scenario – What if Things Change
• Monte Carlo Analysis – Computer Simulates
the Outcome of a Project using Pessimistic,
Optimistic, and Most Likely
• Resource Leveling – Used to Produce a
Resource Limited Schedule
• Critical Chain Method – Both Activity and
Resource Dependencies
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53
Reporting Schedule
• Milestone Charts – Show major events and
are used for management review
• Project Schedule – Shows the activities and
sequence (Microsoft Project or Primavera
Schedule)
• Gantt Charts – Progress reporting and control
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54
Control Schedule
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Schedule Control
Controlling changes to the project schedule.
Inputs
Project Management Plan
Project Schedule
Work performance information
Organizational Process Assets
Tools and Tech
Performance Reviews
Variance Analysis
Project management software
Resource Leveling
What-if scenario analysis
Adjusting leads and lags
Schedule compression
Scheduling tool
Outputs
Work Performance measurements
Organizational process assets
Change requests
Project management Plan Updates
Project document updates
PMP/CAPM Prep Workshop
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56
What is Schedule Control?
• Measures how the project is doing
• Implement corrective and preventive action
• Make sure the baseline is met or if a need to
re-baseline exists
• Variances analyzed and reported
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Progress Reporting
• How Much Work has been done?
• Percent Complete
– 50/50 Rule
– 20/80 Rule
– 0/100 Rule
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58
Time Management – Final Thoughts
• Questions will focus on the following
– PERT
– Network Diagramming
– CPM
– Reporting
– Interactions with other processes
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