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Report
Maritime Cyber Security:
Navigation and Ships’ Systems
Maritime Cyber Security Roundtable Discussion
Presented by
The Combined Joint Operations from the Sea
Centre of Excellence
and
Old Dominion University
CAPT David B. Moskoff, USMS
Professor of Marine Transportation
United States Merchant Marine Academy
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Location, Technology and E-Navigation
• “Location” through precise positioning more important than ever
due many new factors:
• Larger ships
more cargo
more $ at risk
• Faster ships
less reaction time, more area
• Crew Size
watch standers, fatigue, solo, safety
• W/O Load
info+, technology – i.e. GMDSS
• Deeper Draft
less UKC, bottom surveys
• Technology
skillsets/instincts
dependency
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
For Example: Largest
Container Ship (in 2006)
EMMA MAERSK
170,974 GT
397 m (1,302 ft)
56 m (184 ft)
15.5 m (51 ft)
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Ship’s E-Nav Bridge Equipment
Technology Recently Much More Sophisticated
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ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System)
AIS (Automatic Identification System)
LRIT (Long Range Identification and Tracking)
Radar/ARPA (Automatic Radar Plotting Aid)
Compass (Gyro, Fluxgate, GPS and others)
Steering (Computerized Automatic Steering System)
VDR (Voyage Data Recorder –”Black Box”)
GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress and Safety System)
Numerous other advanced units and systems
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
ECDIS Definition
An Electronic Chart Display and Information System is:
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computer-based navigation system-complies with IMO
can be used as an alternative to paper navigation charts
integrates a variety of real-time information
automated decision aid - continuously determining
ship’s position in relation to land, charted objects,
navigation aids and unseen hazards
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
ECDIS Definition
•
An ECDIS includes electronic navigational charts
(ENC) and integrates position information from the
Global Positioning System (GPS) and other
navigational sensors, such as radar, fathometer and
automatic identification systems (AIS). It may also
display additional navigation-related information,
such as sailing directions.
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
ECDIS
Electronic Chart Display and Information System
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
ECDIS
Electronic Chart Display and Information System
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
AIS (Automatic Identification System)
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
AIS (Automatic Identification System)
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
AIS (Automatic Identification System)
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
ECDIS with AIS Overlay
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
AIS Symbols and Information
Note TCPA and
CPA Above –
Based on GPS
Position Input
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Shipboard Radar/ARPA Unit
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Marine Radar Display - Sperry
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
ECDIS with Radar Overlay
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Combining All Three on One Display
The ECDIS becomes the ultimate “Magic Box”
that is an extremely valuable tool for the welltrained navigator when position input is accurate.
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
AIS and Radar Overlay on ECDIS
Integrated with Compass, Depth and other sensors
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
IBS (Integrated Bridge System)
Solo Watchstanding
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Recent Technology Onboard Ships
• The Good
• The Bad
• The Ugly
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CSL Thames Grounding: Not Enough ECDIS Training
ttp://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=2m4JGoJZESs&NR=1
http://www.ntsb.gov/news/events/2009/san_francisco_ca/animation.html
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Important E-Navigation Terms
PNT – Positioning, Navigation and Timing
GPS – NavStar (U.S. Air Force) – Universal use
DGPS - Differential Global Positioning System
GNSS – Global Navigation Satellite System
RSNS - Regional Satellite Navigation Systems
GLONASS (Russia), Galileo (EU), Compass (China)
Beidou (China), QZSS (Japan), IRNSS (India)
Electronic Charts, ECDIS/ECS, Track Control, AIS,
LRIT, IBS, LF, Loran C and Enhanced Loran (eLoran)
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
GPS/GNSS is an ENav Concern
ECDIS [and AIS] Position Input
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Commercial Ships – C/A Code
Primary and Secondary Inputs
Typically from GPS/GLONASS Today
Galileo and Compass in Future
LF System - eLoran as Backup
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
THV GALATEA – Lighthouse Tender
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
THV GALATEA – Lighthouse Tender
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
…..from article by David Hambling on THV GALETEA
….When Last activated the jammer, the ship went haywire.
According to the electronic display on the ship's bridge, the
Galatea was suddenly flying at Mach speeds over northern
Europe and Ireland.
The ship's navigation backup - its gyrocompass-
crashed, because it uses GPS to provide corrections.
The radar did the same. Even the ship's satellite
communications failed, because GPS points the antenna in
the right direction. "The crew were well trained and briefed,
so they knew what was going on," says Last. "But, like us,
they were surprised.“ http://www.gla-rrnav.org/radionavigation/gnss_dgnss/vulnerabilities.html
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
GPS/NavStar – The U.S. Satellite System
Some Known Vulnerabilities of GPS/GNSS Systems:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Low power signal strength - inherent weakness
Potential for unintentional interference
Potential for intentional jamming or interference
Potential for spoofing (hacking) and meaconing
Potential for EMP to destroy receiver electronics
Technical failure(s) of satellites (constellation)
Exposure of satellites to kinetic or laser attacks
http://www.youtube.com/v/Uk7DVpCkgwQ&hl=en
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
High Power Mobile Phone &
GPS(L1)/WiFi/Bluetooth
Signal Jammer
http://www.alibaba.com/productgs/386981063/EST_808LC_Portable_Military_
blocker.html
Output power is 320 watt.
The shielding radius is from 300500 meters...
Model Number: KTC-VU Jammer
2.0 Pelican
Min. Order: 5 Pieces
Port: Shenzhen
Supply Ability: 50 Pieces per Day
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Why Conduct Intentional Activities?
A. PNT Signal is Critical to Infrastructure
• Criminals – PNT regulates Banking and Finance
• Hackers – Government, IT, Defense, Commercial
• Terrorists - Defense, Government, Energy, IT,
Communications, Nuclear Industry, Banking,
Transportation, Water, Chemical, Agriculture and Food,
Emergency Services, Finance, more
• Extremists - ??????????????????????????
• Military – Electronic Warfare (EW) & Cyber
• Pirates – Hijack Ship, Ground Ship, Steal Cargo
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Examples: Other ENav/GPS Concerns
• ECDIS is a Computer Subject to Viruses, etc.
• IT Attacks Against Ship (i.e. Spearfishing)
http://www.transas.com/support/chart_corrections/
http://www.transis.com/support/chart_corrections/
• Military Using Commercial GPS – C/A Code
•
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fVxDVUsiejQ&feature=related
• Lack of Low Frequency(LF) eLoran-Type Backup
• Electromagnetic Pulse Attack (EMP) Kills All?
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Quick Look at GPS and eLoran
GPS:
Weak Transmitting Signal Strength
High Frequency Bands – L1, L2, L5
Satellite Based – High Orbiting
Fairly Easy to Jam/Spoof
eLoran:
Powerful Transmitting Signal Strength
Low Frequency Band – 100 KHz
Terrestrial Based – Secure Stations
Virtually Impossible to Jam/Spoof
Both:
Very High Accuracy
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
eLoran – The Terrestrial System
Enhanced Loran (eLoran)
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What is it?
How does it work?
What are its benefits?
How much would it cost?
Why isn’t everyone funding it?
What’s the current status?
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
What Can Ships Do? Options?
• Use GPS/GNSS receivers (+$15) that detect spoofing
and jamming to warn users.
• Provide as many inputs to navigation positioning as
possible – i.e. LF eLoran - especially in
coastal/shallow areas.
• Use Parallel Indexing and Cross Indexing Radar
Techniques routinely.
• Use ECDIS/ECS units with both a primary and a
secondary input at all possible times in all available
areas.
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
What Can Ships Do? Options?
• Maintain Skillsets: Piloting, Celestial,
Instruments (fathometer, fathograph)
• Audit and Test ships for jamming and other
vulnerabilities: test in open water areas under
controlled conditions.
• Conduct ship drills (like fire drills) on regular
basis: consider GNSS failure, GNSS jamming,
GNSS spoofing, equipment failures, EMP
attack, etc.
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Just Don’t Put All Your Eggs in One Basket
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
United States
Merchant
Marine
Academy
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED
Questions?
Comments?
Discussion?
CAPT David B. Moskoff, USMS
Professor of Marine Transportation
United States Merchant Marine Academy
Master Mariner – USCG Unlimited
[email protected]
516.726.5856
Maritime Cyber Security: Navigation and Ships’ Systems
CAPT D. Moskoff
2 May 2014 for CJOS/ODU - UNCLASSIFIED

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