As the broadcast spectrum

Report
BROADCAST SPECTRUM
CHALLENGE
Engr.Yomi Bolarinwa
FNSE,MIEEE,MSBE
Broadcast Engineer
PREAMBLE
The justification for regulation of
broadcasting worldwide is based on the
finite nature and universality of the
electromagnetic spectrum.
This makes the need to understand the
dynamics of the spectrum a key issue in
policy formulation for Broadcasting.
ELECTROMAGNETIC
SPECTRUM
The EM Spectrum is the complete range
of electromagnetic radiation from the
longest radio waves (wavelength 105
metres) to the shortest gamma radiation
(wavelength 10-13 metre)
 The entire range of electromagnetic
radiation. At one end of the spectrum are
gamma rays, which have the shortest
wavelengths and high frequencies. At the
other end are radio waves, which have the
longest wavelengths and low frequencies.
Visible light is near the center of the
spectrum.

EMS2
The electromagnetic spectrum is made up
of a family of electromagnetic radiation
that includes radio waves, infrared
(radiated heat), visible light, ultraviolet, and
gamma rays.
RADIO FREQUENCY
SPECTRUM


Radio spectrum refers to the part of
the electromagnetic spectrum
corresponding to radio frequencies.
Radio Spectrum is the range of
frequencies from 3kHz to 300GHz.
RADIO FRQUENCY TABLE
CLASSIFICATION
Very Low Frequency
, (VLF)
Low Frequency
radio
(LF)
beacons
Medium Frequency
radio (MF)
broadcasting
High Frequency
SW
(HF)
rescue
Very High Frequency
sound
(VHF)
Ultra High Frequency
satellite
(UHF)
Super High Frequency
,land,
(SHF)
communications
Extremely High Frequency
(EHF)
FREQUENCY BAND
3 KHz to 30 KHz
30 KHz to 300 KHz
APPLICATION
Long range navigation
sonar
Navigational aids,
300 KHz to 3 MHz
Maritime radio, AM
3 MHz to 30 MHz
Telephone, fax, AMbroadcasting,
30 MHz to 300 MHz
VHF-TV and FM-
300 MHz to 3 GHz
broadcast, police
UHF-TV broadcasts,
3 GHz to 30 GHz
and mobile
Microwave link, radar
mobile
30 GHz to 300 GHz
Railroad service, radar,
landing system
SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT
The International Telecommunication
Union (ITU) defines Spectrum
management as:
“the combination of administrative
and technical procedures necessary
to ensure the efficient operation of
radiocommunication services
without causing harmful
interference
SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT
Spectrum Management process involves:
 Analysis of potential interference
problems
 Keeping an effective data base of
frequency assignments
 Controlling the level of manmade noise
 Planning for future use of the spectrum
RADIO SPECTRUM
Presently, it encompasses a rising number
of Radio communication services like:
 National Security
 Public Safety
 Broadcasting
 Research
 Business and Industrial
Communications
 Aeronautical and Maritime
Communications and Navigation
 Personal Communications
RADIO SPECTRUM
The RF spectrum is a resource limited
by technology and management
capability.
 Great capacity can be found within the
spectrum if it is properly organized,
developed and regulated.
 To obtain the benefits of this natural
resource each country must develop
methods to manage the spectrum to
ensure efficient and effective
coordination between different services
and to meet the immediate and longterm demand by existing and new radio
communication services.

BROADCASTING BANDS


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

LF – MF BANDS FOR AM MEDIUM
WAVE RADIO BROADCASTING
HF – BAND FOR SHORT WAVE AM
RADIO BROADCASTING
VHF – BAND FOR FM RADIO AND
TELEVISION BROADCASTING
UHF – BAND FOR TELEVISION
BROADCASTING
L – BAND FOR TELEVISION (SHARED
BAND )
S, C, KU – BANDS FOR SATELLITE
BROADCAST SERVICES.
BROADCASTING BAND SPECTRUM

Medium Frequency (MF) or Medium Wave (MW) AM-Radio
– 1605KHz
510

High Frequency (HF) or Short Wave (SW) AM-Radio
– 26500KHz
5900

Very High Frequency (VHF) or Band I (TV Ch. 2-4)
69MHz
47 –

Very High Frequency (VHF) or Band II (FM-Radio)
108MHz
88 –

Very High Frequency (VHF) or Band II (TV Ch. 5-12)
230MHz
174-

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) or Band II (TV Ch. 21-34)
582MHz
470-

Ultra High Frequency (UHF) or Band II (TV Ch. 35-60)
582-790MHz

Direct Broadcast Satellite, Radio (L-Band)
1467-1492MHz

Microwave Multipoint Distribution System (MMDS)
2.67GHz

Direct Broadcast Satellite, Television (C-Band) down-link
3.4 – 4.2GHz

Direct Broadcast Satellite , Television (C-Band) up-link
5.845-6.645GHz

Direct Broadcast Satellite , Television (KU-Band) down-link
11.45-12.75GHz

Direct Broadcast Satellite , Television (KU-Band) up-link
2.52-
13.75-14.50GHz
Changes to BS
WRC-07 allocated the band 790-862
MHz to the mobile, except
aeronautical mobile, service on a
primary basis in Region 1 and
identified this band for IMT in Regions
1 and 3.
 The generic allocation will come into
force from 17 June 2015 in Region 1
(footnote 5.316B ).

Changes to BS
WRC12 made Further allocation of
694 – 790 MHz for mobile services
 The issue of extension of the Mobile
allocation to the band 694 – 790 MHz
has been adopted as an agenda item
for WRC-15

Implications
Channels 61 to 69 on the UHF Television band
are no longer available
 Channels 50 to 59 on the UHF Television band
are no longer available
 Re-planning of frequency allocation for UHF
broadcasting not to exceed channel 48 by the
regulator
 Absence of protection for analogue use of
frequency after 2015
 Coordination with neighbouring countries

New Technology Platform For
TV Broadcasting
Today's consumers of broadcast content,
expect to watch linear and non-linear
broadcast content anytime, any where and on
any audiovisual device.This trend is fully
recognised and supported to the extent
possible by most broadcasters today
New Technology Platform FOR
TV Broadcasting
At the last meeting of ITU Study Group 6 in
November 2013, Prof Krivocheev stated that
“modern requirements of broadcasting are cardinally
different from the initial ones. The media and the
means of production, transmission and reception of
information and interactive signals are significantly
expanded: terrestrial and satellite broadcasting, cable
TV, broadcasting in fixed and mobile
telecommunication networks, important role of
internet, cloud technologies, etc.”
Points to ponder
Modern
requirements for digital TV and multimedia
broadcasting are radically different from the traditional
ones, and traditional requirements do not reflect the
latest international decisions as well as the actual and
future technological progress.
Due to interactive “info-communication”, the users can
take an active part in the way programmes are received
on the base of personal preferences and selected for
convenient viewing time. These possibilities of the
viewers influence TV and multimedia broadcasting
strategy and the associated info-communication services
as never before.
The intensive development of broadband access, the
wide penetration of the internet and its applications
significantly enhance the users possibilities to receive and
consume various type of video content.
Points To Ponder

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Wi max
Interactive television
Internet protocol television –
IPTV.
Transmission to hand held
devices.
Internet television
Video on Demand (VoD)
CONCLUSION
As
the broadcast spectrum “shrinks”,
broadcasters will find it difficult to introduce
new services which promise to use up more of
the spectrum in the dynamic digital era.
Technologies like the HDTV, SHDTV
(developed in Japan), 3DTV, Object Wave TV
(beyond SHDTV), etc will require more
bandwidth for effective operation
DAB is presently using band III of the UHF
band.
Further erosion of the UHF band is expected
in 2015
With a change in attitude towards spectrum,
there must also be a change in broadcast policy
and mode of licensing broadcasters.
THANK YOU FOR NOT
HEARING BUT
LISTENING

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