AgrAbility Webinar Series: Visual Impairments and Their Relevance to Agriculture November 27, 2012 BASIC WEBINAR INSTRUCTIONS • Need speakers or headphones to hear the presentation • Meeting > Manage My Settings > My Connection Speed Dial-up not recommended • Questions about presentation Type into chat window and hit return. During the Q & A period, if you have a web cam/microphone, click the “Raise Hand” icon to indicate that you have a question We will activate your microphone BASIC WEBINAR INSTRUCTIONS • 4 quick survey questions • Session recorded and archived with PowerPoint files at http://agrability.org/OnlineTraining/archived along with resource materials • Problems: use chat window or email [email protected] KNOWN WEBINAR ISSUES • Disconnection with presenters Hang on – we’ll reconnect as soon as possible • Disconnection with participants Log in again • AgrAbility: USDA-sponsored program that assists farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers with disabilities. Partners land grant universities with disability services organizations Currently 23 projects covering 25 states National AgrAbility Project: Led by Purdue’s Breaking New Ground Resource Center Goodwill of the Finger Lakes = funded partner More information available at www.agrability.org Visual Impairments and Their Relevance to Agriculture ABVI-Goodwill of the Finger Lakes Vision Rehabilitation Depar tment AgrAbility INTRODUCTIONS • Nikki Llewellyn M.S. COMS [email protected] • Sharon Schwalm M.S. CVRT [email protected] • Christopher Frank [email protected] ABVI • Association for the Blind and Visually Impaired • Located in Rochester, NY • Serves a 9 county region • Provides comprehensive vision rehabilitation services • Mission Statement: “To prepare and empower people who are blind or visually impaired to be self sufficient and contribute to their families and communities.” WHAT IS VISION REHABILITATION? • Vision Rehabilitation services includes a wide array of professionals and services that can restore functioning after vision loss. Vision Rehabilitation Therapists provide training on how to adapt everyday activities. Orientation and Mobility Specialists teach how to travel safely in any environment. Employment and Training Specialists help to obtain or maintain employment using individualized career services and technology training WHAT IS VISION REHABILITATION? Low Vision Specialists are specially trained doctors who examine the person’s vision and recommend devices to improve the use of remaining vision. An occupational therapist may be involved in training the individual how to use the recommended devices. Social workers and therapists provide support through information, referrals, counseling and support groups. ASPECTS OF VISION LOSS • Acuity The focus or blurriness of the “picture” A measure of clarity at a certain distance. 20/20 vision means what is at 20 feet appears to be at 20 feet. 20/200 means what is at 20 feet appears as if 200 feet away. It is sometimes measured in 10 foot increments such as 10/100 etc. Glasses are the most common way to correct for this, but some eye conditions and acuities can not “be fixed” with normal glasses. This is when magnification is needed. ASPECTS OF VISION LOSS • Visual Field The size of the viewing field or how much can be seen in “the picture”. Visual field is measured in degrees. A straight line is 180 degrees. Most people have about 170 degrees of vision. Some people’s visual’s fields are so restricted that it is like tunnel vision. Some people have peripheral or side vision but don’t have vision in the center. ASPECTS OF VISION LOSS • Contrast sensitivity Contrast refers to how well the object or viewing target stands out from the background. White on black is high contrast. White on grey has less contrast. Contrast sensitivity tests measure size and contrast. A person with low contrast sensitivity may not see the flame on the stove, or be able to tell which light is lit at a traffic light. Extra lighting may help. CONTRAST • This is an example of poor contrast • This is an example of good contrast DEFINITIONS OF BLINDNESS • Visual Impairment Any degree of vision loss that impacts an individuals’ daily activities. 20/70 is a measurement used to indicate visual impairment and may qualify the individual to receive services from a state agency. • Blindness Acuity measurement of 20/200 or worse, or if nothing can be read on the 20/100 line. Visual field of less than 10 degrees from center. A visual field loss that closes in to less than 20 degrees (10 degrees from center all around) or a visual field loss that covers all of the central vision to at least 10 degrees around. DEFINITIONS OF BLINDNESS • Light Perception LP can refer to light perception – the individual can only tell if the light is turned on or off. It can also refer to light projection which is when the individual can locate the source of the light. NLP generally stands for no light perception. The individual sees nothing and can not tell if a light is turned on or not ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) • COMS- Certified Orientation and Mobility Specialists Teach safe travel techniques including use of remaining vision, traveling with a long cane, orientation techniques and how to use transportation. Certified by ACVREP – the Academy for Certification of Vision Rehabilitation Professionals • Mobility Instructors/Travel Trainers – individuals trained by the National Federation of the Blind to teach independent travel techniques including cane use, orientation techniques and how to use transportation. ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) • Orientation refers to knowing where you are in relation to other people, places or things. • Mobility refers to how an individual with reduced or no vision is going to move through the environment. Various tools are used to move safely and efficiently. ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) • O&M Tools ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) • Tools Enhance vision by reducing glare, adding contrast, using a telescope, visual techniques such as scanning and tracking. ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) Long cane to preview the environment and protect the user from the waist down. ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) Dog guide specially trained from one of the nationally recognized dog guide schools. Electronic Devices Sonar Device Talking Compass GPS ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) • Tips and Techniques • Orientation Guide wire – run a cable from one location to the next and put a large loop of cable around it that you can slip your arm or hand through it but not have to hold it with your fingers. Create a guide line on the ground by painting rocks or large heavy objects that will stay in place, (discarded bowling balls from bowling facilities). Outside make paths with gravel to follow or mow a path and let the grass grow up higher along the path. Inside use non slip treads or textured rubber coating to provide a textured path that you can feel through shoes and boots . ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) • Tips and Techniques Use a bright light as a landmark or beacon to guide you to a destination. Check the sky line to find landmarks before you need them – to help guide you. Use brightly colored bicycle flags on tall poles to mark locations outside. Use a compass to maintain orientation when in large open spaces. Use GPS on your phone to mark specific destinations. If you get lost or disoriented set the GPS on your phone to provide you with verbal directions to get to your desired destination. ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) Tips and Techniques • Mobility Have a long cane in a holster or pouch so that if you need to spot check the depth of something you can use the cane to measure the distance. Use color contrast to mark steps, drop offs, recessed troughs. Determine best contrast by painting small boards in various colors and then lay them down on the surface where you need a guide line to determine which provides you with the best contrast. Indoors run florescent lights overhead along the center of your path so that you can follow them to stay on the path and away from the drop offs to each side. ORIENTATION AND MOBILIT Y (O&M) Tips and Techniques • General safety Make yourself and others (co-workers) more visible by wearing a reflective safety vest. Keep your hands free to assist with balance. Use a back pack to carry items. Have a head mount flashlight or one that fits behind your ear that allows you to keep your hands free but provides light where it is needed. These can be purchased at Wal-Mart or Radio Shack and they work great when working under the hood of a car or when you need to access information on dials or buttons of equipment. VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Addresses any challenge due to a vision impairment, including but not limited to: Communication and Financial skills Meal and Home management Personal skills and Family Care Recreation • Service provided in the home, work, or out in the community VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Service starts with functional assessment • Work with individual, breaking down each task to determine problem area(s); incorporating task analysis Paves way for future problem solving new challenges • Teaching adaptations and recommending adaptive equipment as needed for goal attainment • Supplement vision by use of other senses • Show individual ways to maximize usable vision Increasing color contrast Reducing glare Adjusting lighting Use of optical devices VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Cues that Vision Rehabilitation Therapy may be needed: Holding reading material up close to the face Bending close to an object while doing an activity Difficulty locating items Difficulty or no longer performing everyday activities • Resource www.visionaware.org VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Adaptive Techniques Change one or more of the steps involved in performing an activity to make it easier to do May make this change in conjunction with adaptive equipment, labeling and marking materials, lighting, color contrast and magnification devices Print vs. cursive Bold medium point or marking pens Color contrasting writing guides Large print (LP) check register Guide Line Checks (LP) Purchased through bank or by calling Deluxe Checks VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Adaptations: Adaptive Equipment Any item that is used to change an object making it easier to use or identify. As simple as a rubber band or as complex as an electronic labeling device • Examples: contrasting bump dots, large print keyboard stickers, spot n line, and example using PENfriend VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Adaptations: Adaptive Equipment Or, an object that can be used to change how a task is performed to make it easier to complete Examples: • Low vision or talking clocks and watches • Large Print and talking calendars VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Adaptations: Adaptive Equipment Talking Kitchen scales can be used to weigh feed supplements, produce, or other product A talking indoor-outdoor thermometer can provide temperatures in home, greenhouse or outside Digital Recorders to record notes in the field Talking kitchen & personal scales Talking clinical thermometer Talking Indoor-Outdoor Thermometers I have used LP and talking personal scale to weigh Alpaca cria (baby) One of our VRT’s had a lesson with a farmer, a cow and a talking clinical thermometer VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Adaptations: Adaptive Equipment Talking kitchen scale weighing alpaca roving Large print scale weighing alpaca yarn with magnifier Talking measuring tape VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Transferring skills Skills learned for one activity may work for other activities • Measuring using color contrast, leveling technique or talking measuring cup in the kitchen will work to measure feed or feed supplements VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Color Contrast: Increasing color contrast can improve visual performance. • Surveyor’s flagging tape to secure trellising plants and for ease of locating items (landmarks, stakes,) Paint tools contrasting colors • A tennis or bright • colored foam ball placed on top of a • plant stake for location and safety • Purchase color contrasting tools Multi-purpose rubber dip to coat tool handles Bright colored tape VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Other examples of color contrast: VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Glare Reduction: Glare can be an issue both indoors and out. Try sitting with your back to a window during indoor activities Wear hats with caps or visors and sunglasses while inside or outside Avoid bare light bulbs (Increase light and glare Anti-glare window film, shades or blinds Use flat or matte finishes on furniture Carpets and non-slip floor finishing diffuse light VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) Lighting: Everyone’s lighting needs are dif ferent . • Photophobic (Sensitive to light) • Need combination of room and task lighting • Some may feel there is never enough light Individualized lighting evaluations of the home, barn and storage buildings is essential. Examples of full or broad spectrum, LED and Fluorescent task lighting. VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Optical Devices VRT’s integrate recommended magnification devices during lessons Hand and stand illuminated magnifiers Based on curvature of the lens, the smaller the lens size, the stronger the magnification VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) Optical Devices Spectacles Binoculars Monoculars For distant and near tasks VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • Organization: Organization is key to avoiding lost items Totes, tool buckets, color contrasting tarps/trays can be used while working on projects A lazy susan drilled to hold drill bits in order of size labeled appropriately White washed peg board providing color contrasting background to hang up tools Contrasting colored nylon rope can replace string to mark rows for planting garden Using large print, Braille or PENfriend audio labels to label items in the home, barn, or storage VISION REHABILITATION THERAPY (VRT) • IOS Devices (iphone or ipad) with Voice Over can be used: Apps for note-taking, color ID, labeling As GPS on the farm To take pictures of plant disease, insect infestation, or sore on an animal to enlarge for identification purposes • e-mail to vet or cooperative extension • VRT’s Motto: Whatever Works for an individual is what is right for that individual. Please remember: everyone is dif ferent ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGY • Devices or software that allows a person to access information in print or electronic format • Cues that it may be needed Squinting Sitting very close to monitor Head/eye aches ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGY • Contrast vs. Enlargement Good contrast can reduce eye strain Enlargement allows information to be seen larger, but reduces the amount of information on the screen ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGY • Major Devices CCTVS- Desktop and Compact Portable ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGY • Major Devices Adaptive software for computers ZoomText, MAGic, Windows Magnifier, Apple Zoom ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGY • Large Monitor ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGY • Portable Devices iOS Devices (iPhone, iPod, iPad) Android Smart Phones • • • • Reverse colors Zoom in Large text Spoken text CONCLUSION • Additional resources are available on the website • Get connected with a Vision Rehab Agency in your region • Remember that everybody’s vision is different •A little change can make a big difference - get creative!