The French Revolution and Napoleon

Report
The French Revolution and Napoleon
Chapter 7
The French Revolution Begins
Chapter 7 Section 1
The Old Order
 The Old Regime divided France into 3 estates or social classes
 The Privileged Estates
 The first two estates were made up of the __________ who provided 2%
of its income to the gov’t and the ___________ who paid almost no
taxes
 The Third Estate
 97% of the people in France
 3 different groups
 Bourgeoisie
 Urban workers
 Peasants
 Although the groups were different they all wanted what?
The Forces of Change
 Enlightenment Ideas
 The Third Estate was inspired by
what?
 The philosophes ideas of equality,
liberty, and democracy were very
intriguing to the French
 Economic Troubles
 High taxes made for less profit,
making it very difficult to own and
run a business
 What impact did Louis XVI and
Marie Antoinette have on the
economy?
The Forces of Change
 A Weak Leader
 Louis XVI’s weak leadership did
nothing but hurt France
 Why did the French people
dislike Marie before this time
 Excessive spending made the
situation worse and “Madame
Deficit” wasted a great deal of
money
 The Estates-General was called
to approve a new tax on the
nobility or the Second Estate
Dawn of the Revolution
 Previous to the revolution what was
the problem with the EstatesGeneral?
 The National Assembly
 The Third Estate wanted to have
each delegate (or representative)
vote, why?
 Sieyes wants the Third Estate
delegates to form the ________
Assembly to pass laws for France
 The National Assembly votes to
end the ________ and start a what?
Significance?
 The Tennis Court Oath is taken in
order to write a national
constitution
Dawn of the Revolution
 Storming the Bastille
 Rumors spread that Louis was
sending troops to Paris to do
what?
 July 14th a mob storms the
_______ , a Paris prison
 Bastille Day becomes a symbolic
event in French history, why?
What can we compare it to in
the United States?
A Great Fear Sweeps France
 A series of rumors allows for the
spread of rebellion where?
 The Great Fear turns peasants
into outlaws…destroying legal
papers and in some cases
burning down houses
 Women in Paris rioted over bread
prices, demanding the king and
queen to come to Paris
 The end of the French monarchy
soon followed
7.1 Daily Questions
1. Which group within the Third Estate would suffer the most from
the increase in bread prices? Why? Explain.
2. How did Louis XVI’s weak leadership contribute to the
revolution in France?
Honors Only
3. Do you think the French bread riots (and the violence that
ensued) were justified? Why or why not?
Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
Chapter 7 Section 2
The Assembly Reforms France
 The Rights of Man
 “Men are born free and equal in rights.”
 Also guaranteed what?
 “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
 A State-Controlled Church
 The Catholic church loses land and
political independence…what does the
sale of lands help the French do?
 What are peasants upset about?
 Louis Tries to Escape
 Louis XVI tries to escape to the Austrian
Netherlands but is apprehended and
returned to Paris
Divisions Develop
 A Limited Monarchy
 The new French constitution created a limited constitutional monarchy
and took power from the king
 The Legislative Assembly is created to do what?
 Factions Split France
 What is a faction? How many developed in the French Legislative
Assembly?
 ____________ wanted serious changes, ___________ wanted some
changes, and ____________ wanted limited change.
 Emigres and sans-culottes also hoped to make changes in France
War and Execution
 France declares war because of
Austria and Prussia’s call for a return
to absolute monarchy
 France at War
 Mob warfare takes over in France
and the royal guard is
massacred…Louis and his family
are imprisoned
 A new governing body is created,
the ___________ Convention and
France is now a republic
 What about women?
 Jacobins take Control
 A radical political
organization
 Famous members: Marat
and Danton…beliefs?
 The Jacobins put Louis on
trial for treason and
behead him with the
_____________.
 The War Continues
 The war with Prussia and
Austria leads France to
have to do what?
The Terror Grips France
 Robespierre Assumes Control
 What changes did Robespierre
and the Jacobins want to
make?
 As the leader of the
Committee of Public Safety he
rules France as a dictator and
his rule was known as the Reign
of ___________.
 Robespierre was paranoid
about his enemies and even
those slightly less radical than
him
 Thousands are executed, irony
End of the Terror
 Robespierre goes to the
guillotine because of the fear
for safety throughout France
 A new gov’t is created (the
third in 6 years) creating a two
house legislature
 A moderate approach was
taken to French gov’t
 Who emerges as the general of
the French army?
7.2 Daily Questions
1. Describe the three factions that split the Legislative Assembly
and in many ways France itself.
2. What caused Prussia to invade France? Was this action justified?
Honors Only
3. Explain Robespierre’s justifications for his use of terror during the
French Revolution (use the quote on page 226).
Napoleon Forges an Empire
Chapter 7 Section 3
Napoleon Forges an Empire
 Hero of the Hour
 Napoleon comes to fame as an
officer in the French army when
he defends the delegates of the
National Convention
 Napoleon travels the world in
defense of France…keeping his
stories of failure out of the news
 Coup d'état
 Distrust of the Directory results in
Napoleon seizing power under the
title ________ _________
 Napoleon makes peace with
what three countries?
Napoleon Rules France
 A plebiscite was held to approve the
new constitution, give who all of the
power?
 Restoring Order at Home
 Ruled different than Louis, how?
 Stabilizes the economy and the
gov’t with the creation of lycees
that did what?
 Signed a concordat with Pope Pius
VII that recognized the church but
kept it out of gov’t affairs
 The Napoleonic Code creates laws
but limits rights
 Napoleon is crowned
Emperor by the pope in
1804…significance?
The Crowning of Napoleon
Napoleon Creates an Empire
 Napoleon attempts to conquer
beyond France’s borders
 Loss of American Territories
 After the civil war in Saint
Dominigue Napoleon decides to
cut his losses in the New World
 Sells the ___________ territory to the
U.S., significance?
 Conquering Europe
 Napoleon takes on Europe despite
a combined effort against him
 The only major power left was
Great Britain
Napoleon Creates an Empire
 The Battle of Trafalgar
 Only major battle lost
 Horatio Nelson, a great naval strategist, defeats the French
fleet
 Ensures British naval supremacy
 Napoleon would not attempt to invade Britain
 The French Empire
 What countries remained out of Napoleon’s control?
 The French empire was large but unstable, why?
7.3 Daily Questions
1. Explain how the Napoleonic Code was a step backwards after
the efforts of the French Revolution
2. In what ways was the loss of overseas territories (like Louisiana
and present day Haiti) significant to Napoleon and the French?
Honors Only
3. Describe Napoleon’s relationship with the Catholic church.
How was this relationship different from the ideas of Robespierre?
Napoleon’s Empire Collapse
Chapter 7 Section 4
Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
 Who was the biggest threat to
Napoleon’s power?
 The Continental System (#1)
 Napoleon sets up a _______ to
prevent _______ from trading with
the rest of Europe. What did he call
this strategy?
 Weakens British trade but does not
destroy it altogether
 Britain responds with a blockade of
their own…resulting in what war?
Significant?
Napoleon’s Costly Mistakes
 The Peninsular War (#2)-why the name?
 Napoleon sends forces into España in
an effort to force them to accept the
continental system
 What did Spain fear most?
 The British send in troops to aid the
Spanish guerillas
 Europeans were filled with feelings of
_______________, significance?
 The Invasion of Russia (#3)
 Napoleon turns on his ally Alexander I
and marches his troops into
Russia…Alexander’s response?
 The Russian winter destroyed France’s
troops 420,00010,000
Napoleon’s Downfall
 Napoleon Suffers Defeat
 Napoleon raises a new army to
battle the European alliance,
problem?
 Frederick William (Prussia) and Czar
Alexander I (Russia) take Paris and
banish Napoleon to ____________, off
the coast of ____________.
 The Hundred Days
 Why is Louis XVIII so unpopular so
soon?
 Napoleon returns to the cheers of
the French people
Napoleon’s Downfall
 The Hundred Days (cont.)
 British and Prussian forces
defeat Napoleon at Waterloo
in __________.
 The Hundred Days is the name
given to Napoleon’s last efforts
to gain power
 Sent to St. Helena, dies 6 years
later
 Legacy?
7.4 Daily Questions
1. Why did the French people support the return of Napoleon?
2. What would Napoleon have needed to make his Continental
System work?
Honors Only
3. How did nationalist fervor affect Napoleon’s empire? Give
specific examples.
The Congress of Vienna
Chapter 7 Section 5
Metternich’s Plan for Europe
 Congress of Vienna is called to
create stability in Europe
 5 great powers: Russia, Prussia,
Austria, Great Britain, and
France…who emerges as the most
influential representative?
 Metternich’s 3 goals:
 Prevent future French aggression
 Restore a balance of power
 Royal families back to their thrones
Metternich’s Plan for Europe
 The Containment of France (map on page 240)
 United Kingdom of the Netherlands
 German Confederation
 Switzerland
 Kingdom of Sardinia
 Balance of Power
 No country in Europe could become stronger than the rest
 Legitimacy
 The return of which European monarchs to the throne would help
with stability?
What is the legacy of the Congress of Vienna?
Political Changes Beyond Vienna
 Significant changes in European
leadership
 Conservative Europe
 Francis of Austria and Frederick
William of Prussia sign the ________
___________ in order to combat
revolution
 What does the Concert of Europe
do?
 Conservatives vs. liberals
Political Changes Beyond Vienna
 Revolution in Latin America
 When Napoleon replaced the
King of Spain what were the
effects on Spain’s colonies?
 Long Term Legacy
 France’s power decreases, Britain
and Prussia’s power increases
 Revolutions occurred throughout
Europe, new _______ are formed,
and colonies claim independence
 Is democracy the way to go?
7.5 Daily Questions
1. Why did Metternich want to restore ruling families to their
thrones?
2. Explain the idea of a balance of power. Why was it such an
important topic at the Congress of Vienna?
Honors Only
3. Explain whether you agree with the Congress of Vienna
diplomats that stability was more important than liberty. Why or
why not?
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