Presentation - Australian Geomechanics Society

Report
THE MYSTERY OF UNSATURATED SOIL
MECHANICS – SOME MINING
APPLICATIONS
Australian Geomechanics Society, SA & NT Chapter
Monday 15 July 2013, Adeliade
Professor David J Williams
Email: [email protected]
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Overview
Unsaturated soil mechanics continues to play
poor relation to saturated soil mechanics
An unsaturated soil at a given density performs
better than same soil in a saturated state
• Some mining applications:
–
–
–
–
–
–
Wetting-up and drain down of waste rock dumps
Drain down, desiccation and rewetting of mine tailings
Drain down, desiccation and re-wetting of product coal
Bearing capacity and deformation of mine wastes
Shear strength and compressibility of clay-rich spoil
Performance of geo-covers placed on mine wastes
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INTRODUCTION
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1. Shear strength:
2. Compressibility:
– Or deformation of a soil under an applied load
– Simplistically, compressibility can be tested under
unsaturated conditions
– Or rate of drainage under an applied load
– Assessed by SWCC and ksat testing
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DECREASED
3. Permeability (hydraulic conductivity):
DECREASED
– Or capacity of a soil to support load
– Simplistically, shear strength can be tested under
unsaturated conditions (adding “cohesion”)
INCREASED
Key Unsaturated Soil Mechanics
Parameters
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Mining and Mineral Processing
Wastes
• Coarse-grained wastes (surface dumps):
– Overburden (typically up to 200 mm) or waste rock (up
to 1 m), particularly from surface mining (limited from
underground mining)
– Coarse reject (typically 50 mm) from coal processing
– Slag or scats (typically 15 mm) from smelting
– Spent heap leach material (typically 15 mm)
• Fine-grained wastes (tailings storage facilities):
– Crushed and ground tailings (typically silt-size)
– Erosion sediments (fines)
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Waste Rock and Coarse Processing
Waste Dumps
Waste rock dump
Coarse reject dump
Pumped co-disposal of coal washery wastes
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Tailings Storage Facilities
Metalliferous tailings
Red mud
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Iron ore tailings
Sand mining tailings
7
Coal tailings
In-pit coal tailings
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WETTING UP AND DRAIN DOWN OF
WASTE ROCK DUMPS
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Impact of Waste Rock Wetting-Up
RAINFALL / EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
3
2.5
Kalgoorlie, WA, average annual rainfall = 250 mm
Average annual rainfall ~600 mm
2
Net evapotranspirative
Net infiltrative
1.5
Moisture
excess
1
Potential impact of waste rock dump wetting-up
0.5
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
RAINFALL (mm/year)
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Wetting-Up and Drain Down of
Coarse-Grained Wastes
Start-up
25 min ~30 mm
50 min ~60 mm
80 min ~100 mm
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Moisture Profile after 100 mm
1.0
HEIGHT (mm)
0.8
5%
0.6
10
2%
0.4
1%
0.2
1%
2%
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
LENGTH (m)
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Surface Infiltration into Cadia’s Trial
Waste Rock Dump
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Changing Infiltration into Cadia’s
Trial Waste Rock Dump with Time
May 2006
Note differential settlementinduced ponding
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November 2007
13
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13
Average Base Seepage Beneath Top
and Side Slopes of Cadia’s TWRD
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Trigger Rainfall and Delay for Base
Seepage Following Rainfall
Flat top lysimeter rainfall trigger
Angle of repose lysimeter rainfall trigger
Flat top lysimeter delay
Angle of repose lysimeter delay
TRIGGER RAINFALL (mm)
35
30
40
35
30
25
25
20
20
15
15
Trend line
for trigger rainfall
10
10
Trend line
for delay
5
5
0
0
100
DAYS UNTIL FLOW
40
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
0
1000
CUMULATIVE RAINFALL (mm)
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CONTIN. BREAKTHRU (mm/year)
Estimated Wetting-Up and
Continuum Breakthrough
500
450
Assumed rainfall infiltration of 450 mm
(equivalent to 1.5 x 10-8 m/s)
400
350
300
250
January 2010
200
150
100
Continuum breakthrough at:
~25% saturated for fresh WR
~60% saturated for weathered WR
Possible actual
base seepage
50
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
YEARS
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Estimated Time to “Continuum
Breakthrough” of Waste Rock Dumps
Average rainfall (mm/year)
2000
Increasing
rainfall
1800
Start for 15 m height
Start for 30 m height
Start for 60 m height
Start for 120 m height
1600
Full for 15 m height
Full for 30 m height
Full for 60 m height
Full for 120 m height
1400
1200
1000
Increasing dump height
800
600
400
200
Increasing time
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Time to continuum breakthrough (years)
Typical
mine
life ~20 years, during
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DRAIN DOWN, DESICCATION AND
REWETTING OF MINE TAILINGS
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Impact of Tailings Slurry Deposition
RAINFALL / EVAPOTRANSPIRATION
3
2.5
Kalgoorlie, WA, average annual rainfall = 250 mm
Average annual rainfall ~600 mm
2
Net evapotranspirative
Net infiltrative
1.5
Moisture
excess
1
Assuming 0.5 m/year rate of rise at 25% solids
or 1 m/year at 50% solids
0.5
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
RAINFALL (mm/year)
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Mt Keith Tailings Laboratory Column
Test
Desiccated tailings
Settled tailings
Re-flooded tailings
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Comparison of Field and Laboratory
SWCC Data for Mt Keith Tailings
GRAV. MOISTURE CONTENT (%)
50
45
Average lab. re-drying SWCC
Average lab. re-wetting SWCC
Field data to 0.2 m depth
Field data below 0.2 m depth
Lab. column drying data
40
35
30
Column drying
and re-drying
25
20
Laboratory Regime
Field Regime
15
Tempe re-wetting
10
Tempe re-drying
5
0
0.1
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10
100
1000
10000
MATRIC SUCTION (kPa)
21
100000
1000000
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Comparison Between Field and
Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivities
MATRIC SUCTION (kPa)
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000 1000000
HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY (m/s)
1.0E-06
1.0E-08
1.0E-10
1.0E-12
.
1.0E-14
1.0E-16
1.0E-18
1.0E-20
Estimated field function
Average laboratory function
1.0E-22
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Sensors on Towers in Trial TSF Cell
Matric suction sensor
Piezometer
TDR moisture sensor
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Deposition in Trial TSF Cell
Early deposition
Further deposition
Final deposition
Desiccated tailings
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Matric Suction vs. Time
MATRIC SUCTION (kPa)
Suction Data Collected from Northern Tower
Deposition over 18 Months
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
[email protected]
[email protected]
11 @ 2
0
50
100
Deposition
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150
[email protected]
[email protected]
12 @ 2
200
250
[email protected]
[email protected]
13 @ 2
300 350
DAYS
25
[email protected]
[email protected]
14 @ 2
400
[email protected]
10 @ 2
450
500
550
600
Deposition
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Matric Suction vs. Depth
Suction Data Collected from Northern Tower
Deposition from 17 May to 19 July & 26 Oct to 16 Nov 2007
SENSOR ELEVATION (RL m)
485
01-Jun-07
15-Jul-07
01-Sep-07
15-Oct-07
01-Dec-07
484.9
484.8
484.7
15-Jun-07
01-Aug-07
15-Sep-07
01-Nov-07
15-Dec-07
19.6 mm on 12 Dec
01-Jul-07
15-Aug-07
01-Oct-07
15-Nov-07
31-Dec-07
4.8 mm on 28 July
0.2 mm on 28 Sept
484.6
484.5
484.4
484.3
484.2
484.1
484
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
MATRIC SUCTION (kPa)
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DRAIN-DOWN, DESICCATION AND REWETTING OF PRODUCT COAL
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Dewatering and Atmospheric Effects
on Product Coal
Coarse
Fine
Ultra-Fine
11.5 m
38o
Field stockpile
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TOTAL MOISTURE CONTENT (%)
SWCCs of Product Coal Size Fractions
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.1
1
Composite - Drying data
Coarse - Drying data
Fine - Drying data
Ultra-fine - Drying data
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10
100
MATRIC SUCTION (kPa)
Composite - Wetting data
Coarse - Wetting data
Fine - Wetting data
Ultra-fine - Wetting data
29
1000
10000
Composite - Drying curve
Coarse - Drying curve
Fine - Drying curve
Ultra-fine - Drying curve
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29
Duration of Applied Pressure –
Centrifuging of Fine Product Coal
TOTAL MOISTURE CONTENT (%)
60
50
~ 43%
40
41 to 42%
30
50% dewatering
90% dewatering
20
~ 22.5%
10
5-15 s
0
0.001
3.8 min
0.01
0.1
48 min
1
10
100
TIME (hours)
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Duration of Applied Pressure –
Vacuum Filtration of Ultra-Fine Coal
TOTAL MOISTURE CONTENT (%)
60
50
~ 42%
40
35 to 38%
50% dewatering
30
~ 31%
90% dewatering
20
10
1-2 min
0
0.001
0.01
2.3 min
15 min
0.1
1
10
100
TIME (hours)
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31
Vacuum filtration vs. Briquetting of
Ultra-Fine Product Coal
TOTAL MOISTURE CONTENT (%)
50
Filtered ultra-fine - Drying curve
45
Briquetted ultra-fine - Drying data
40
Briquetted ultra-fine - Wetting data
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0.01
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0.1
1
10
100
1000
MATRIC SUCTION (kPa)
32
10000
100000 1000000
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Sampling Field Coal Stockpile for
PSD and Moisture Content
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Wetting-Up of Model Coal Stockpile
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Geotechnical Engineering Centre
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Stockpile Total Moisture Content
Distribution
12
5.5
11
12.1 12.1 12.3 11.2 10.5 9.2 5.0
HEIGHT (m)
10
9
7.0 6.5
8
6.7
6.8
6.2
5.3
5.7
5.6
6.1
3.2
5% total moisture content contour
7.5% total moisture content contour
10% total moisture content contour
4.6
7
4.7 7.7
7.7
7.5
6.9
7.6
7.2
7.8
3.5
6
5
4
7.7
8.2
7.7
7.7
7.8
7.8
6.3
7.5
6.0
5.5
3.7
3
2
1
6.3
12.3
12.9
8.5
11.1
11.9
10.0
12.1
9.5
7.4
10.5
12.6
8.2
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
DISTANCE FROM CENTRELINE (m)
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BEARING CAPACITY AND
DEFORMATION OF MINE WASTES
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Tailings Bearing Capacity Issues
Too thin a cover over soft tailings
“Bow-waving” of crusted tailings
4-5 m
“Bow-wave”
1.5 m
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Covering Wet Tailings –Victorian
Gold Mine
Spreading thin cover
D6 dozer
2-3 m surcharge
1 m cover, avoiding
“bow wave” failure
Ponded water due to drainage
of excess pore water pressure
Surcharging edge of tailings
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Shear Strength Profiles of Coal
Tailings
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Safe Height of Fill on Coal Tailings
H = Nc.sv/F.
~5.14.sv/(3 x 18)
~0.095 sv
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SHEAR STRENGTH AND
COMPRESSIBILITY OF CLAY-RICH SPOIL
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Jeebropilly Spoil – Relative
Unscalped PSDs
CLAY
Weathered
Rock
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Unweathered
coarse-grained
Rock
42
Unweathered
fine-grained
Rock
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Mt Arthur Spoil – Relative Unscalped
PSDs
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Gravimetric Moisture Content vs.
Matric Suction
Jeebropilly rocky spoil is less dense and wetter
than Hunter Valley spoil, although similar degree
of saturation, and hence matric suction
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Jeebropilly Weathered Rock PSDs
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Geotechnical Engineering Centre
Comparison of Direct Shear Friction
Angles (-2.36 mm)
500
Jeebropilly Weathered Rock tested dry
Jeebropilly Weathered Rock tested wet
Mt Arthur Sandstone tested dry
Mt Arthur Sandstone tested wet
SHEAR STRESS (kPa)
400
c' = 0 kPa, ' ~ 41.5o
c' = 0 kPa, ' ~ 40.7o
c' = 0 kPa, ' ~ 35.6o
300
200
Note substantial softening on wetting up
of clay-rich Jeebropilly Spoil
100
c' = 0 kPa, ' ~ 26.6o
0
0
200
400
600
800
1000
NORMAL STRESS (kPa)
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Geotechnical Engineering Centre
UPC 150 mm, 10 MPa Consolidometer
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76 & 150 mm Consolidometer Testing
of Jeebropilly Weathered Rock
Note low loose density and substantial consolidation
on loading and wetting of clay-rich Jeebropilly Spoil
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76 & 150 mm Consolidometer Testing
of 3-Month Old Mt Arthur Sandstone
Note high loose density and limited consolidation
on loading and wetting of Mt Arthur Sandstone
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Large Texture Changes on Weathering of
Jeebropilly Weathered Rock (-19 mm)
0 days
8 days (32.6 mm rain)
15 days (+23.2 mm rain)
21 days (+6.8 mm rain)
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Large PSD Changes on Weathering of
Jeebropilly Weathered Rock (-19 mm)
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Settlement of Jeebropilly Weathered
Rock with Time on Weathering (-19 mm)
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Minimal Texture Changes on Weathering
of Mt Arthur Sandstone (-19 mm)
0 days
7 days (4.0 mm rain)
21 days (+47.8 mm rain)
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14 days (+39.2 mm rain)
28 days (+6.8 mm rain)
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PERFORMANCE OF STORE AND
RELEASE COVERS PLACED ON MINE
WASTES
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Influence of Climate – Natural
Recharge (Beekmann et al., 1996)
~70 mm
~2.2 x 10-9 m/s
ARID
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SEMI
ARID
Av. rainfall ~600 mmpa
55
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Store and Release Cover on Mine
Wastes
Store/release
cover
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Geotechnical Engineering Centre
56
Construction of Store and Release
Cover on Kidston’s Waste Rock Dumps
Compacted sealing layer
Rocky soil mulch, capable of storing
up to 300 mm rainfall/m thickness
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Vegetation of Kidston’s Store and
Release Cover
12-month old trees (no
grasses) – December 2002
18-month old trees & 6-month
old grasses – July 2003
2-year old trees and 1-year old grasses
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S ~ 1.0, w ~ 45%
Ju
n9
D 6
ec
-9
6
Ju
n9
D 7
ec
-9
7
Ju
n9
D 8
ec
-9
8
Ju
n9
D 9
ec
-9
9
Ju
n0
D 0
ec
-0
0
Ju
n0
D 1
ec
-0
1
Ju
n0
D 2
ec
-0
2
Ju
n0
D 3
ec
-0
3
Ju
n04
Compacted Clayey layer
0.5
DATE
0.45
Rocky soil mulch
Wet season av
S ~ 0.7, w ~ 20%
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
Sensor Depths (m)
n-
04
3
Ju
-0
ec
D
n-
03
2
Ju
-0
ec
D
n-
02
1
Ju
-0
ec
01
D
n-
-0
Ju
ec
D
n-
1.75
0
1.37
00
9
ec
99
D
n-
ec
D
n-
98
7
Ju
-9
ec
D
n-
97
6
Ju
-9
ec
96
D
nJu
0.75
Ju
0.35
0
-9
Dry season min
S ~ 0.2, w ~ 5%
0.05
8
0.1
Ju
VOLUMETRIC WATER CONTENT
0.55
-9
RAIN (mm)
800
600
400
200
0
DATE
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Total for 97/98 = 623 mm
S ~ 1.0, w ~ 45%
VOLUMETRIC WATER CONTENT
Au
g97
Se
p97
O
ct
-9
7
N
ov
-9
7
D
ec
-9
7
Ja
n98
Fe
b98
M
ar
-9
8
Ap
r-9
8
M
ay
-9
8
Ju
n98
Ju
l-9
8
Au
g98
RAIN (mm)
800
600
400
200
0
0.55
Compacted Clayey layer
0.5
Up to 2-week lag
0.45
DATE
Wet season av
S ~ 0.7, w ~ 20%
0.4
0.35
0.3
k ~2 x 10-8 m/s
Rocky soil mulch
0.25
0.2
Dry season min
S ~ 0.2, w ~ 5%
0.15
0.1
Sensor Depths (m)
g98
8
Au
l-9
Ju
n98
Ju
ay
8
M
r-9
Ap
8
-9
ar
M
-9
8
1.75
1.37
0.75
b98
Ja
n-
7
ec
-9
7
D
-9
ov
N
O
ct
-9
7
97
p-
Se
97
gAu
98
0.35
0
Fe
0.05
DATE
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Kidston – Field SWCC Data and
Fitted Curves
VOLUMETRIC WATER CONTENT
0.7
0.35 m depth (field data)
0.35 m depth (fitted curve)
1.00 m depth (field data)
1.00 m depth (fitted curve)
1.37 m depth (field data)
1.37 m depth (fitted curve)
1.77 m depth (field data)
1.77 m depth (fitted curve)
0.6
Wet
sealing
layer
0.5
0.4
0.3
Unreliable
Desiccated
surface
0.2
0.1
0.0
0.1
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
MATRIC SUCTION (kPa)
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Store and Release Net Percolation
NET PERCOLATION
(% cumulative rainfall)
100
90
Cadia
80
Mt Whaleback 2 m ROM-av
Kidston
Mt Whaleback 2 m ROM-peak
70
Mt Whaleback 4 m ROM
Goldstrike
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
AGE (years)
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Mt Whaleback Store and Release
Cover (O’Kane et al, 2012)
Note: No base sealing
layer and constructed with
coarse-grained ROM
waste rock, i.e. poorlyconstructed
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Mt Whaleback Store and Release
Cover (O’Kane et al, 2012)
Note: A well-constructed
store and release cover
should store ~250 mm/m
before percolating
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Kidston – Schematic Wetting-Up and
Drain Down with Time
INFILTRATION/SEEPAGE
350
Base seepage, increasing as
dump wets-up, diminishing
exponentially with cover
due to drain down
Rainfall infiltration,
300 diminishing exponentially
as surface compacts
250
and with cover
200
150
Final seepage
= net percolation
~7 mm/year,
on average
100
50
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
TIME (years)
Post covering
During operation
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NEW GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING
CENTRE AT
THE UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND
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Geotechnical Engineering Centre
New Geotechnical Engineering
Programs @ UQ
• Commenced February 2012
• Funded by Golder Associates, Rio Tinto,
AngloGold Ashanti and BHP Billiton, in
partnership with UQ
–
–
–
–
Industry Partners each contributing ~$150,000/year
Matching funding from UQ
Total funding of $6 million over 5 years
3 new academic appointments, making a total of 7:
• Professor of Rock Mechanics (to be appointed)
• Lecturer in Rock Mechanics (Dr Nazife Erarslan)
• Lecturer in Hydrogeology (offered)
– Plus supporting PostDocs
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Geotechnical Engineering Centre
The GEC Vision
• New Civil & Geotechnical Engineering and Mining
& Geotechnical Engineering Dual Major Programs
will produce:
– Civil and Mining Engineering graduates with a
specialisation in Geotechnical Engineering, unique in
Australia! (Canada has 5 or 6 such programs, e.g.,
making their graduates much sought after by Australian
companies)
– Graduates in high demand from Geotechnical and
Mining Engineering Consultants, Mining Companies,
and Civil and Mining Contractors
– New Programs will have 70-75 graduates/year
– Collaborative research with our industry partners
CRICOS Provider No 00025B
68
Geotechnical Engineering Centre
Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
4-Year Program
2 (6%) Soil Mechanics
Courses → 10
(31%) Geotechnical
Engineering Courses
(in Green)
CRICOS Provider No 00025B
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester
SEM
BE Civil & Geotechnical Engineering
1
ENGG1100
Introduction to Engineering
Design
MATH1051
Calculus & Linear Algebra 1
First Year Elective
First Year Elective
(Recommended: ERTH1501
Earth Processes &
Geological Materials for
Engineers)
2
ENGG1200
Introduction to Engineering
Problem Solving
MATH1052
Multivariate Calculus & ODEs
ENGG1400
Statics & Dynamics
First Year Elective
(or MATH1050, to make up
for MATHS C)
3
CIVL2330
Structural Mechanics
MATH2000
Calculus & Linear Algebra II
CIVL2410
Traffic Flow Theory and
Analysis
4
CIVL2340
Introduction to Structural
Design
CIVL2210
Fundamentals of Soil
Mechanics
CIVL2360
Reinforced Concrete
Structures
STAT2201 Analysis of Eng &
Sci Data
CIVL2130 Env Issues,
Monitoring & Assessment
CIVL2131
Fluid Mechanics
EXISTING
NEW
5
CIVL3340
Structural Analysis
CIVL3140
Catchment Hydraulics
CIVL3210
Geotechnical Engineering
(Applied Soil Mechanics )
MINE3121
Mining Geomechanics
(Fundamentals of Rock
Mechanics ) or ERTH1501
6
CIVL3350
Structural Design
CIVL3141
Catchment Hydrology
CIVL3420
Transportation Systems
Engineering
ERTH3250
Hydrogeology (New)
MINE4120
Mine Geotechnical
Engineering
(Applied Rock Mechanics)
Geo Elective or
Geo Project/Thesis
(CIVL4560 or CIVL4580) or
MINE3121
CIVL4520
Civil Engineering
Management
ERTH2004
Structural Geology or
Geo Elective or
Geo Project/Thesis
(CIVL4560 or CIVL4580)
NEW
7
CIVL4511 or CIVL4512
Civil Design
8
69
NEW
NEW
CIVL4270
NEW Geotechnical
NEW
Investigation
NEW
and Testing (New)
NEW
CIVL4280
Advanced Rock Mechanics
(New)
Geotechnical Engineering Centre
Mining & Geotechnical Engineering
4-Year Program
5 (15%) Mining
Geomechanics
Courses → 12 (38%)
Geotechnical
Engineering Courses
(in Green)
CRICOS Provider No 00025B
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
2nd
1st
Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester Semester
SEM
BE Mining & Geotechnical Engineering
1
ENGG1100
Introduction to Engineering
Design
MATH1051
Calculus & Linear Algebra 1
(or MATH1050, to make up
for MATHS C)
First Year Elective
EXISTING
2
ENGG1200
Engineering Modelling and
Problem Solving
MATH1052
Multivariate Calculus
& ODEs
(or MATH1051 Calculus &
Linear Algebra 1)
ENGG1400
Statics & Dynamics
First Year Elective
(or MATH1052 Multivariate
Calculus & ODEs)
3
MINE2105
Introduction to Mining
MINE2101
Fluid Mechanics
4
CIVL2210
Fundamentals of Soil
Mechanics
MINE2210
Physical & Chemical
Processing of Minerals
5
MINE3120
Resource Estimation
6
NEW
STAT2201 Analysis of Eng &
Sci Data
MINE2123 Structural
Mechanics in Mining
ERTH1501
Earth Processes &
Geological Materials for
Engineers
MATH2000
Calculus & Linear Algebra II
MINE2106
Resource Geology &
Surveying
ERTH2004
Structural Geology
MINE3121
Mining Geomechanics
(Fundamentals of Rock
Mechanics )
EXISTING
MINE3122
Mining Systems
CIVL4270
Geotechnical Investigation
and Testing (New)
MINE3123
Mine Planning
MINE3123
Mine Ventilation I
MINE3125
Rock Breakage
ERTH3250
Hydrogeology (New)
7
MINE4120
Mine Geotechnical
Engineering
(Applied Rock Mechanics)
EXISTING
MINE4122
Mining Geomechanics
Research Project I
8
MINE4121
Mine Management
MINE4123
Mining Geomechanics
Research Project II
70
EXISTINGEXISTING
MINE4124
NEW Hard Rock
Mine Design &
NEW
Feasibility
MINE4125
Coal Mine Design &
Feasibility
NEW
NEW
NEW
MINE4128
Coal Mine Strata Control
NEW
CIVL4280
Advanced Rock Mechanics
(New)
Geotechnical Engineering Centre
Expected Geotechnical Engineering
Graduations
CRICOS Provider No 00025B
71
Geotechnical Engineering Centre
Postgraduate Research Students
• PhD students in Geotechnical Engineering:
– Currently 20
– > 5 applications pending
• Research topics include:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Mine tailings water cycle
Effectiveness of liners for water storage ponds
Settlement of high coal mine spoil
Flow in coal seams
Behaviour of screw auger piles in clay
Problematic clay-rich coal mine tailings
Mining below the groundwater table
Erosion of granular structures
Computational geomechanics
Development and application of spatial Time Domain Reflectrometry
CRICOS Provider No 00025B
72
Geotechnical Engineering Centre

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