The Furnace

Report
Furnace Rheometer System
FRS 1600
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Cooling Concept of the Air Bearing DSR 301
Top view rheometer part
Side view rheometer part
Rheometer head DSR
Air and water cooled
rheometer head fixture
Air cooled coupling
Heat shield
(Fluid circulator VT2 running at 20 °C
required)
Specifications DSR:
Max. torque
200 mNm
Min. torque
0.05 µNm
Max. speed with FRS
300 1/min
Normal force range
0.01 to50 N
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The Furnace : Carbolite STF 16/180
The temperature control unit
The furnace
Working Tube
X-Axis Movement
(vertical)
Temp. Display
Power Cable
Specifications Furnace:
Specifications Control Unit:
Max. Temperature
1600°C
Power Connection
Min. Temperature
300°C
Heating
Inert Gas
e.g.: Ar, N2
Connection to DSR
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380V, 21A
Pulsed Current
Serial
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Preparation and Measurement of the Sample
All you have to do is…
Set zero gap
Lift position
Sample filling
Reference
position,
cleaning
Sample
heating,
melting
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Measuring
position by NF
control, start
measurement
Lift position
(NF control)
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Vertical Movement Concept
Pneumatic lift down to
heating position
Heating position
Pneumatic lift up to
final cup position
Furnace moved to
park position
Reference position
for cooling and
cleaning
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Measuring position
Normal force
controlled final
positioning by
stepper motor
driven elevating
thread
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Overall View
Furnace
Temperature range
300°C to 1600°C
Temperature control
Eurotherm
Total lenght heat tube
600 mm
Heated lenght heat tube
180 mm
Constant temperature
80 mm
Rheometer Head
DSR measuring head
Test modes
Air bearing
Rotation and
oscillation
Software controls
instrument and furnace
▸ Water measurement at 20 °C
From very low rotating
speeds up to 300 1/s
Regarding the 300 mm
shaft perfect
concentricity and
measurement results.
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Measuring Systems for high Viscosity Samples as
e.g. Glass melts, Lava, Basalts
Cup:
C-CC
xx
AO
CA
FRS
Cups for powders
and bulk goods
Cup-Conc. Cylinder
Inner Diameter in mm
Aluminum oxide
Carbon
for FRS
(Larger volume in a
non-molten state)
C-CC30/AO/FRS
d(i): 30 mm, d(o): 40 mm
h(i): 60 mm
C-CC30/CA/FRS
d(i): 30 mm, d(o): 40 mm
h(i): 60 mm
Bob:
D-CC
xx
AO
CA
FRS
Disposable-Conc. Cylinder
Inner diameter in mm
Aluminum oxide
Carbon
for FRS
D-CC11/AO/FRS
d: 11.4 mm L: 30 mm
D-CC11/CA/FRS
d: 11.4 mm L: 30 mm
D-CC15/AO/FRS
d: 15 mm L: 20 mm
D-CC15/CA/FRS
d: 15 mm L: 20 mm
C-CC30/CA/FRS/XL
C-CC30/OA/FRS/XL
d(i): 30 mm, d(o): 40 mm
h(i): 80 mm
Other materials and dimensions on request.
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Standard Measuring Systems for low Viscosity
Samples as e.g. Metal Melts
Bob:
D-CC
xx
AO
CA
FRS
Disposable-Conc. Cylinder
Inner cylinder diameter in mm
Aluminum oxide
Carbone
for FRS
D-CC25/CA/FRS
d: 25 mm L: 37.5 mm
D-CC27.6/AO/FRS
d: 27.6 mm L: 41.4 mm
D-CC27/CA/FRS
d: 26.66 mm L: 40 mm
D-CC27.6/CA/FRS
d: 27.6 mm L: 41.4 mm
D-CC29/CA/FRS
d: 29 mm L: 41.4 mm
Other materials and dimensions on request.
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Applications, Impressions and Standards
Possible applications:
▸ metal melts
▸ glass melts
▸ coal ash, slags
▸ lava, basalte, rocks

(Withdrawn 2009)
( )
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Metal (1)
▸ The FRS is the only reasonable decision for metal
melts, because of the low viscosities which can
only be measured with an air bearing rheometer
▸ Potential costumers:
▸ Universities and other research centres
▸ Metal industry:
▸ Steel and Iron (melting points: ~1510 °C and
1530 °C )
▸ Copper (melting point: 1083 °C )
▸ Silicium (melting point: 1410 °C)
▸ Cross-selling potential: CTD 600 and CTD 1000 (e.g.
for Aluminium or Zinc and other lower melting
materials)
▸ Until now, metal melts are measured with so called
Oscillating Vessel Viscometers and Flow Cups
(assuming Newtonian behaviour)
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Metal (2): Measurements
Figure: Quadruple repetition of steel measurements at
1537 °C - Please note the non-Newtonian behaviour!
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▸ Argumentation and explanation:
▸ Based on the latest scientific
findings some metal and alloy
melts exhibit non-Newtonian flow
behaviour
▸ This is a fundamental finding, as
most theories and all measuring
techniques are based on the
assumption that metal and alloy
melts are Newtonian liquids
▸ Until now this effect could not be
measured with competitor
instruments, as they are all based
on ball bearing rheometer heads
▸ This effect has not only an impact
on academia, but also on the metal
processing industry. For example
during the casting process a wide
spectrum of shear rates can be
observed, so the exact flow curve
needs to be determined
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Glass (1)
▸ The FRS delivers great results measuring glasses
▸ Potential costumers:
▸ Universities and other research centres
▸ Industry: Development of special glasses (standard glasses don’t need to
be measured anymore, as their viscosity can be calculated by equations, if
the exact chemical composition is known)
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Glass (2): Measurements
Figure: Viscosity curve of two different glasses during
cooling
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Argumentation and explanation:
▸ Glass is a Newtonian liquid
▸ The viscosities at different
temperatures are from interested
▸ Glass standards are available to
conform the validity of the
measurements
▸ The FRS can measure glass
according to the following
standards:
▸ ASTM C1276 (withdrawn)
▸ ASTM C965
▸ With the FRS one can determine
the following additional
parameters:
▸ Crystallisation point
▸ Melting point
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Slags and coal ash (1)
▸ The FRS can be used to measure slags and coal ash to determine their
properties for their further processing
▸ Potential costumers:
▸ Universities and other research centres
▸ Industry:
▸ Slag:
▸ By-product of the iron und steel production
▸ Range of application: Additives for cement, street building, glass industry,
brigs, fire proved materials, isolation materials….
▸ Coal Ash:
▸ By-product of coal combustion (e.g. for Power generation or other industrial
applications)
▸ Range of application: e.g. Alternative to cement, usage in brigs, asphalt, flow
able film shingles – building material for monuments (e.g. freedom tower NYcity)….
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Slags an coal ash (2): Measurements
Argumentation and explanation:
▸ Good and reliable results for
slag and coal ash
▸ Slag or coal ash is sometimes
“splashing” and “bubbling” – the
advantage of our instrument is
that we are operating in a
working tube as protection for
the heating elements
▸ The working tube also protects
the heating elements from
corrosive gases released by the
sample, that may cause severe
damage
Figure: Viscosity curve of coal ash at 1400 °C
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Conclusion and features (1)
▸ High safety, reliability and quality (of the instrument and the results)
▸ Large shear rate range because of the air bearing
▸ Normal force control: Sample shrinkage or expansion is recognized and
measured by the normal force sensor. With this function the melting point
can be determined
▸ Toolmaster: DSR employs ToolmasterTM functionality.
▸ Oscillation measurements are possible
▸ Measurement of non-Newtonian material down to very low viscosities
possible
▸ Operation in a working tube – to handle even splashing and bubbling
materials
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Conclusion and features (2)
▸ Easy and safe handling (CE certified)
▸ Measurement according to the following standards:
▸ ASTM C1276 (withdrawn)
▸ ASTM C965
▸ Disposable measuring systems (for saving time -> no cleaning is required
and for solidification experiments)
▸ Temperature sensor / Temperature calibration: The FRS comes with a
factory temperature calibration. The instrument sets the furnace temperature
according to the calibration. The software displays the sample temperature
▸ AGC coefficient: The length change due to temperature of the measuring
system is automatically compensated by the AGC function
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How to sell an FRS?
▸ Look out for potential costumers (according to the applications mentioned
before) in your region
▸ Address them before their budget run
▸ Look for information material like application reports in the extranet or ask for
reference measurements and additional information. We are constantly
adding new application reports and marketing material
▸ Try to influence tenders according to our features and strengths and prepare
yourself with arguments to explain the price differences to the competitors
▸ Demos, installations and the costumer support is handled in teamwork with
Graz (Peter Brandes and Elke Riedl)
▸ Please update us about your FRS opportunities and give us your and the
costumers feedback about the FRS. Your opinion and your information are
very valuable for us
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Chances
▸ One FRS project generates the turnover of two to
three MCR projects
▸ If the customer is really interested there is a good
chance to sell a FRS
▸ The FRS ensures safe operation and high quality
(also in comparison to the competitors, a list will
be handed out to all participants)
▸ You will get all the support you need from Graz –
together we can win more projects
▸ Our team here in Graz is going to build up
collaborations and further application knowledge
in the high temperature rheometry area – be part
of it!
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