Present Continuous Tense Present Actions Temporary Actions Longer Actions in Progress Future (Personal) Arrangements and Plans Tendencies and Trends Irritation * We use the Present Continuous Tense to talk about actions happening at the moment of speaking. o Neill is chatting with friends at the moment. o I am watching the match between Turkey and Brazil. * We use the Present Continuous Tense for temporary actions. * Temporary actions continue only for a limited period of time. o I am working extra hours in order to finish the project. (After I finish the project, I won’t work extra hours.) o She is staying at a hotel until she finds a house. (After she finds a house, I won’t stay at a hotel.) * We use the Present Continuous Tense to talk about longer actions in progress. These actions take time to complete: writing a book, learning a new language, studying for an exam, etc. o They are saving money to buy a new car. o I am reading an excellent novel nowadays. * We use the Present Continuous Tense to talk about planned actions. These actions will happen in the near future. o They are having a party at the weekend. o I and my classmates are going out this evening. * We use the Present Continuous Tense to express tendencies or trends. o Technology is developing day by day. o Jane is getting better. She can start working soon. o More people are sharing photos on Facebook. o Most people are using e-mail instead of writing letters nowadays. * We use the Present Continuous Tense to express irritation or anger in the present with adverbs such as: always, continually or constantly. o You are always talking to your friends during the class. o My neighbors are always arguing. o I am studying for my exam. (I’m studying…) o You are looking at the pictures now. (You’re looking…) o My wife is cooking in the kitchen. (My wife’s cooking…) o I am not studying for my exam. (I’m not studying…) o You are not looking at the pictures now. (You aren’t looking…) o My wife is cooking in the kitchen. (My wife’ isn’t cooking…) A: Are you looking at the pictures at the moment? B: Yes, I am. / No, I am not. A: Is my wife cooking in the kitchen? B: Yes, she is. / No, she isn’t. A: Are my son and his friend playing football now? B: Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. A: What are you looking at? B: I am looking at the pictures. A: What is my wife doing in the kitchen? B: She is cooking. A: Where are the students watching a video? B: They are watching a video in the classroom. * We cannot use some verbs in the continuous form because these verbs refer to states; not actions. We use the Present Simple Tense with these verbs. love like dislike hate want hear see smell taste understand believe know forget remember have*** *** We don’t use “have” in the Present Continuous Tense when it means “to possess”. When there is a different meaning, we can use in the continuous form. o I have a car. (NOT: I am having a car.) → Have = Possess o We are having breakfast in the kitchen. → Have = Eat o Everybody is having fun at the party. → Have = Enjoy Most Verbs Add “-ing” Verbs ending in “e” Drop “e”; add “-ing” If a one syllable (with only one vowel sound) verb ends in one consonant (for example p, t, r) that follows one vowel (for example a, o, e) Irregular Verbs Double the last consonant; add “-ing” work play study come working playing studying coming have write swim get stop having writing swimming getting stopping lie die lying dying * We use the following time expressions in the Present Continuous Tense: AT THE MOMENT NOW NOWADAYS AT PRESENT TODAY RIGHT NOW TONIGHT THESE DAYS USE PRESENT CONTINUOUS for present actions PRESENT SIMPLE for general actions I am listening to music on the radio now. I listen to music after dinner every day. for temporary actions for permanent actions I’m working at a hotel. I work at a hotel. for future arrangements and plans future events (part of a timetable) We are playing football this evening. My train leaves at 8.00 this evening. for longer actions in progress for habits or actions we do regularly I am reading a novel nowadays. I read a novel when I have free time. to talk about tendencies and trends People are using tablets these days. to express irritation We use “make”: * for producing, constructing, something new. o They make these toys in China. creating or building * to talk about plans and decisions: o She doesn’t make a decision about her clothes easily. o Make your choice: Do you want to play computer games or football? We use “make”: * with nouns about speaking and certain sounds: o Don’t make noise! Your brother is sleeping. o I always make a comment on her decisions. * o o o with food, drink and meals: I and my wife like making a cake at the weekend. She makes some tea when she watches TV. We always make our dinner together. We use “do”: * to talk about work, jobs or tasks. (NOTE: They don’t produce any physical object.) o I do my homework after I have dinner. o I do the ironing twice a week. * to refer to activities in general with words “something, nothing, anything, everything, etc”. o Do something for her. She needs you. o He does everything he can do to be successful. Please, don’t forget to do the exercises on your book: Grammar Fast.